14. Index

Names, locations, topics. Entries in footnotes in italics. Topics covered by certain chapters are not included. Names and locations in source references, in the bibliography and in lists are not included.

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- L -

- M -

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Notes

[1]A detailed description of this execution can be found at: Bill Krueger, "Lawson's Final Moments", The News & Observer, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 19, 1994, p. A1.
[2]Newsweek, November 8, 1993, p. 75; The New York Times, October 6, 1994, p. A20; ibid., June 16, 1994, p. A23.
[3]Bettina Freitag, "Henker warten nicht", New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, March 13-19, 1999, p. 3.
[4]The News & Observer, Raleigh (NC), June 11, 1994, p. 14A (according to the prison warden, normally 10-14 min.).
[5]C.T. Duffy, 88 Men and 2 Women, Doubleday, New York 1962, p. 101 (13-15 min.); C.T. Duffy was warden of San Quentin Prison for almost 12 years, during which time he ordered the execution of 88 men and 2 women, many of them executed in the local gas chamber.
[6]Stephen Trombley, The Execution Protocol, Crown Publishers, New York 1992, p. 13 (approximately 10 minutes or more.); Amnesty International, Botched Executions, Fact Sheet December 1996, distributed by Amnesty International USA, 322 Eighth Avenue, New York, NY 10001-4808 (more than 7 min).
[7]These paragraphs are based on an article by Conrad Grieb, "The Self-assisted Holocaust Hoax" (available online only: http://www.codoh.com/gcgv/gcgvself.html); Ger.: "Der selbstassistierte Holocaust-Schwindel", Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung, 1(1) (1997), pp. 6ff. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/1/Grieb1.html) (subsequently abbreviated as VffG).
[8]Re. the technical proceedings cf.: F. A. Leuchter, The Third Leuchter Report, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., Toronto 1989 (online: www.zundelsite.org/english/leuchter/report3/leuchter3.toc.html).
[9]Such is the title of a documentary movie directed by Errol Morris about Fred Leuchter, shown at the Sundance Film Festivals in Park City (Utah, USA) in late January 1999: "Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr." There are actually several versions of this movie, the one offered as a VHS video for retail being massively reworked.
[10]The following paragraphs were taken from Mark Weber, "Probing Look at 'Capital Punishment Industry' Affirms Expertise of Auschwitz Investigator Leuchter", The Journal of Historical Review 17(2) (1998), pp. 34ff. (subsequently abbreviated as JHR); Ger.: "Ein prüfender Blick in Amerikas 'Todesstrafen-Industrie' bestätigt das Leuchter-Gutachten", VffG, 2(3) (1998), pp. 226ff. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/3/Buecher3.html)
[11]Stephen Trombley, op. cit. (note 6), p. 8.
[12]Ibid., p. 98.
[13]Ibid., p. 102
[14]Ibid., p. 13.
[15]A gassing requires 1-2% by volume, while an explosion requires 6% by volume or more; see, in this regard, chapter 6.3.
[16]"How to get rid of termites", Life, Dec. 22, 1947, p. 31; see also Liberty Bell, 12/1994, pp. 36f.
[17]S. Moeschlin, Klinik und Therapie der Vergiftung, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1986, p. 300.
[18]dpa, "Dilettantische Kammerjäger", Kreiszeitung, Böblinger Bote, Nov. 16, 1995, p. 7. Research has failed to determine which toxic gas was involved. Since hydrogen cyanide is one of the most poisonous and most rapidly diffusing of all gases used in disinfestation, the reported damage would have been at least as great if caused by hydrogen cyanide, even if hydrogen cyanide was not in fact involved in this accident. A number of additional examples are described by K. Naumann: "Die Blausäurevergiftung bei der Schädlingsbekämpfung", Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, 1941, pp. 36-45.
[19]www.mankato.msus.edu/depts/reporter/reparchive/10_15_98/campuscope.html
[20]www.osha.gov/media/oshnews/may99/national-19990510.html; see also The Plain Dealer, Dec. 19, 1999, p. 30A; Nation-The Orange County Register, Jan. 9, 2000, News 11; Allan Elias was sentenced to 17 years imprisonment on April 28, 2000, APBnews.com, April 29, 2000, www.apbnews.com/safetycenter/business/2000/04/29/safetycrime0429_01.html and .../safetycrime0429_doc.html: The cyanide-contaminated sludge in the tank also contained phosphoric acid, resulting in the release of cyanide gas.
[21]"Un expert évoque la présence de gaz mortel dans la grotte", Le Quotidien de la Réunion, June 25, 1998.
[22]G. Zimmermann (ed.), Bauschäden Sammlung, volume 4, Forum-Verlag, Stuttgart 1981, pp. 120f., relating to the case of building damage occurring in August 1976 in the Protestant church at D-96484 Meeder-Wiesenfeld. We wish to thank Mr. W. Lüftl, Vienna, for discovering this information, as well as Mr. K. Fischer, Hochstadt am Main, who was held liable for damages as responsible architect, and who supplied me with further details. Reproduced from: E. Gauss (alias Germar Rudolf), "Wood Preservation through Fumigation with Hydrogen Cyanide: Blue Discoloration of Lime- and Cement-Based Interior Plaster", in: E. Gauss (ed.), Dissecting the Holocaust, Theses & Dissertations Press, Capshaw, AL, 2000, pp. 555-559 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndwood.html).
[23]E. Emmerling, in: M. Petzet (ed.), Holzschädlingsbekämpfung durch Begasung, Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege (Working Notebooks of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Maintenance), vol. 75, Lipp-Verlag, Munich 1995, pp. 43-56. Whether the examples cited in the paper may perhaps refer to the above mentioned case only in a roundabout way, must remain open for the time being. Carl Hermann Christmann reports the case of a farm building belonging to an 18th century monastery; the farm building was sold to a farmer following secularization, and the farmer then used it as a barn. Approximately 20 years ago, an investor converted the beautiful Baroque building into a luxury holiday restaurant. The existing interior plaster was repaired and painted white. After some time, blue stains appeared in the white paint; the stains were identified by a consulting expert as Iron Blue. The expert assumed that the former owner must have fumigated the building with hydrogen cyanide between 1920 and 1940, which then caused the stains 40-50 years later. Personal communication from C.H. Christmann according to his recollection on July 13, 1999; Mr. Christmann was unfortunately unable to find the source of the information. I would be extremely grateful for any references to passages in the literature in relation to this case.
[24]In one case, the fumigation of a church freshly painted with iron-free lime paint led to dark stains caused by the polymerization of hydrogen cyanide: D. Grosser, E. Roßmann, "Blausäuregas als bekämpfendes Holzschutzmittel für Kunstobjekte", Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 32 (1974), pp. 108-114.
[25]Re. background and course of the criminal proceedings cf.: R. Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial, Reporter Press, Decatur, Alabama 1990, abridged transcript of the trial against Ernst Zündel in Toronto 1988; Ger.: Der Holocaust vor Gericht, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., Toronto 1996 (online: www.zundelsite.org/german/lenski/lenskitoc.html); a lengthy compilation of the entire trial: Barbara Kulaszka (ed.), Did Six Million Really Die? Report on the Evidence in the Canadian "False News" Trial of Ernst Zündel-1988, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., Toronto 1992 (online: www.zundelsite.org/english/dsmrd/dsmrdtoc.html).
[26]F. A. Leuchter, An Engineering Report on the alleged Execution Gas Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek, Poland, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., Toronto 1988, 195 pp.; Ger.: Der erste Leuchter Report, ibid., 1988 (online: ihr.org/books/leuchter/leuchter.toc.html).
[27]Partially derived from Prof. Faurisson's description in: "Zum Zündel-Prozeß in Toronto, Teil 2. Vorgeschichte-Ablauf-Folgen", Deutschland in Geschichte und Gegenwart 36(4) (1988), pp. 4-10 (online: http://www.vho.org/D/DGG/Faurisson36_4.html) (hereafter abbreviated as DGG).
[28]This paragraph is again quoted acc. to Mark Weber, who gives no reference for this alleged quote of Beate Klarsfeld in his article op. cit. (note 10),.
[29]Cf. JHR, 12(4) (1992), pp. 421-492 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/12/index.html#4).
[30]Cf. his four most-important works: Die Lüge des Odysseus, K.-H. Priester, Wiesbaden 1959; Was nun, Odysseus?, ibid. 1960; Das Drama der Juden Europas, H. Pfeiffer, Hannover 1965; Was ist Wahrheit?, Druffel, Leoni 81982; Engl.: Debunking the Genocide Myth, The Noontide Press, Los Angeles, 1978 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/engl/RassArch/PRdebunk/PRdebunkIntro.html).
[31]Cf. his most import works: Schuld und Schicksal, Damm-Verlag, Munich 1962 (online: www.vho.org/D/sus); Sündenböcke, Verlag G. Fischer, Munich 1967; NS-Verbrechen-Prozesse des schlechten Gewissens, ibid. 1968; Verschwörung des Verschweigens, Ederer, Munich 1979; Majdanek in alle Ewigkeit?, ibid. 1979 (online: www.vho.org/D/miae); Zionazi-Zensur in der BRD, ibid. 1980.
[32]Cf. The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, Institute for Historical Review, Newport Beach, California, 71985 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/thottc); "Context and perspective in the 'Holocaust' controversy", JHR, 3(4) (1982), pp. 371-405. (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/3/4/Butz371-405.html).
[33]Cf. Mémoire en défense, La Vieille Taupe, Paris 1980; Serge Thion (ed.), Vérité historique ou vérité politique?; La Vielle Taupe, Paris 1980 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/histo/SF/SF1.html); R. Faurisson, Écrits révisionnistes, 4 vols., published by author, Vichy 1999.
[34]Cf. in addition to arguments in the works in note 33 also R. Faurisson, "Es gab keine Gaskammern", Deutscher Arbeitskreis Witten, Witten 1978.
[35]R. Faurisson, "Le camere a gas non sono mai esistite", Storia illustrata, 261 (1979), pp. 15-35 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/archFaur/1974-1979/RF7908xx2.html); Engl.: "The Gas Chambers: Truth or Lie?" The Journal of Historical Review, 2(4) (1981), pp. 319-373 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/2/4/Faurisson319-373.html); cf. Faurisson, "The Mechanics of Gassing", JHR, 1(1) (1980) pp. 23ff. (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/engl/FaurisArch/RF80spring.html); Faurisson, "The Gas Chambers of Auschwitz Appear to be Physically Inconceivable", ibid., 2(4) (1981), pp. 311ff. (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/2/4/Faurisson312-317.html)
[36]"'Le problème des chambres à gaz' ou 'la rumeur d'Auschwitz'", Le Monde, Dec. 29, 1978, p. 8; see also "The 'problem of the gas chambers'", JHR, 1(2) (1980), pp. 103-114 (online: ihr.org/jhr/v01/v01p103_Faurisson.html).
[37]Cf. the documentation on numerous articles and letters in R. Faurisson, Mémoire..., op. cit. (note 33), pp. 71-101.
[38]Le Monde, Feb 21, 1979.
[39]At the Sorbonne from Jun 29.-July 2., 1982, entitled "Le national-socialisme et les Juifs"; cf. Ecole des hautes études en sciences socials (ed.), L'Allemagne nazie et le génocide juif, Gallimard/Le Seuil, Paris 1985; on December 11-13, 1987, there was a second Colloquium held at the Sorbonne, cf. R. Faurisson, Écrits révisionnistes, op. cit. (note 33), vol. 2, pp. 733-750 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/archFaur/1986-1990/RF871210.html).
[40]For a transcript of the conference, cf.: Jäckel, E., J. Rohwer, Der Mord an den Juden im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1985.
[41] Most importantly, Wilhelm Stäglich's Der Auschwitz-Mythos, published in 1979, (Grabert, Tübingen, online: www.vho.org/D/dam; Engl.: The Auschwitz Myth, Institute for Historical Review, Torrance, CA, 1986) as well as Walter N. Sanning's papers and book on Jewish population statistics: "Die europäischen Juden. Eine technische Studie zur zahlenmäßigen Entwicklung im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Teil 1-4", DGG 28(1-4) (1980), pp. 12-15; 17-21; 17-21; 25-31; Sanning, Die Auflösung des osteuropäischen Judentums, Grabert, Tübingen 1983 (online: www.vho.org/D/DGG/Sanning28_1.html and www.vho.org/D/da); English: The Dissolution of Eastern European Jewry, Institute for Historical Review, Torrance, CA, 1983.
[42]E. Kogon, H. Langbein, A. Rückerl et al. (eds.), Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt 1983; Engl.: Nazi Mass Murder, Yale University Press, New Haven 1993; French: Henry Rollet, Les chambres à gaz secret d'Etat, Les Editions de Minuit, Paris 1984.
[43]The most important: J. Ball, Air Photo Evidence, Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Sobibor, Bergen Belsen, Belzec, Babi Yar, Katyn Forest, Ball Resource Service Ltd., Delta, B.C., Canada 1992 (permanently updated and enhanced online: www.air-photo.com); Ernst Gauss (alias G. Rudolf), Vorlesungen über Zeitgeschichte, Grabert, Tübingen 1993 (online: www.vho.org/D/vuez); Gauss. (ed.), Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte, ibid. 1994 (online: codoh.com/inter/intgrundex.html); Engl.: Dissecting the Holocaust, note 22; Jürgen Graf, Der Holocaust auf dem Prüfstand, Guideon Burg, Basel 1992 (online: www.zundelsite.org/german/graf/Prueftoc.html); Graf, Der Holocaust-Schwindel, ibid. 1993; Graf, Auschwitz. Tätergeständnisse und Augenzeugen des Holocaust, Verlag Neue Visionen, Würenlos 1994 (online: www.vho.org/D/atuadh); Graf, Todesursache Zeitgeschichtsforschung, ibid. 1995 (online: www.zundelsite.org/ezundel/german/graf/Graf_TOC.html); Graf and Carlo Mattogno, KL Majdanek, Castle Hill Publishers, Hastings 1998 (online: www.vho.org/D/Majdanek/MR.html); Graf, Mattogno, Das KL Stutthof, Castle Hill Publishers, Hastings 1999 (online: www.vho.org/D/Stutthof); Jürgen Graf, Riese auf tönernen Füßen, ibid. 1999 (online: www.vho.org/D/Riese); Engl: The Giant With Feet of Clay, Theses & Dissertations Press, Capshaw, AL, 2001 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/Giant); Gerd Honsik, Freispruch für Hitler, Burgenländischer Kulturverband, Vienna 1988 (online: www.vho.org/D/ffh); Honsik, Schelm und Scheusal, Bright Rainbow, Madrid n.d. [1994]; Rüdiger Kammerer, Armin Solms (ed.), Das Rudolf-Gutachten, Cromwell, London 1993 (online: www.vho.org/D/rga); Carlo Mattogno, La soluzione finale. Problemi e polemiche, Edizioni di Ar, Padua 1991; Auschwitz. La prima gasazione, Edizioni di Ar, Padua 1992; Mattogno, Auschwitz: The End of a Legend, Institute for Historical Review, Costa Mesa 1994 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/anf/Mattogno.html); Herbert Verbeke (ed.), Auschwitz: Nackte Fakten, Vrij Historisch Onderzoek, Berchem 1995 (online: www.vho.org/D/anf). Before the Leuchter Report, there were really only three revisionist periodicals (JHR, Annales d'Histoire Révisionniste, Historische Tatsache, online cf. www.vho.org/Archive.html#Journals), there are now eight-apart from various information services and newsletters: JHR (PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659, USA; online: ihr.org/jhr), VffG (PO Box 118, Hastings TN34 3ZQ, UK; online: www.vho.org/VffG), The Barnes Review (130 Third Street SE, Washington, D.C. 20003, USA; online: www.barnesreview.org), Révision (11 rue d'Alembert, F-92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux), L'Autre Histoire (BP 3, F-35134 Coësme), Revisionist History (PO Box 849, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83816, USA; online: hoffman-info.com), Akribea (45/3 route de Vourles, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval; online: www.vho.org/F/j/Akribeia), Le Révisionniste (VHO, BP 46, B-2600 Berchem 1, Belgium); The Revisionist (PO Box 257768, Chicago, IL 60625, online: www.vho.org/tr).
[44]The Fabius-Gayssot Law was passed in France in 1990, rendering punishable the 'denial of the facts' of the National Socialist war crimes 'ascertained' at the Nuremburg Trials of 1946 convened by the Allied powers. In 1993, Austria followed suit (sec. 3h Criminal Law); in 1994, Germany (sec. 130 Criminal Code, new version), in 1995, Switzerland (sec. 216bis Criminal Code) and in 1996, Spain enacted similar laws. A similar law passed in Belgium in 1997 has not yet been enforced. Poland adopted a similar law in 2000, Hungary is currently preparing to introduce one. Canada and Australia have created 'Human Rights Commissions' which persecute revisionists although there is no legal framework for this.
[45]J.-C. Pressac, Jour J, December 12, 1988, pp. I-X. See also the related discussion in the undated translation, without references; see also Pressac in: S. Shapiro (Ed.), Truth Prevails: Demolishing Holocaust Denial: The End of the Leuchter Report, Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, New York 1990.
[46]On this cf. W. Schuster, "Technische Unmöglichkeiten bei Pressac", DGG, 39(2) (1991), pp. 9-13 (online: vho.org/D/DGG/Schuster39_2.html); also Paul Grubach, "The Leuchter Report Vindicated: A Response to Jean-Claude Pressac's Critique", JHR, 12(2) (1992), pp. 248ff. (online: codoh.com/gcgv/gc426v12.html)
[47]H. Auerbach, Institut für Zeitgeschichte, letter to Bundesprüfstelle, Munich, Oct. 10, 1989; Auerbach, November 1989 (no day given), both published in U. Walendy, Historische Tatsache no. 42, Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, Vlotho 1990, pp. 32 and 34.
[48]In this regard, see my technical appraisal, reprinted in Henri Roques, Günter Annthon, Der Fall Günter Deckert, DAGD/Germania Verlag, Weinheim 1995, pp. 431-435 (online: www.vho.org/D/Deckert/C2.html).
[49]W. Wegner, "Keine Massenvergasungen in Auschwitz? Zur Kritik des Leuchter-Gutachtens", in U. Backes, E. Jesse, R. Zitelmann (ed.), Die Schatten der Vergangenheit, Propyläen, Frankfurt 1990, pp. 450-476 (online: www.vho.org/D/dsdv/Wegner.html, with interpolated critique by the present writer).
[50]On this cf. W. Häberle, "Zu Wegners Kritik am Leuchter-Gutachten", DGG, 39(2) (1991), pp. 13-17 (online: www.vho.org/D/DGG/Haeberle39_2.html).
[51]In a personal communication to me, he confessed that he had been forced to include the paper to avoid opposition to his book due to the fact that the other papers were 'revisionist' in tone.
[52]J. Bailer, "Der Leuchter-Bericht aus der Sicht eines Chemikers", in: Amoklauf gegen die Wirklichkeit, Dokumentationszentrum des österreichischen Widerstandes, Bundesministerium für Unterricht und Kultur (eds.), Vienna 1991, pp. 47-52. With respect to the cyanide content of human hair: Expert Opinion of the Cracow Institute, 1945, on the cyanide content of human hair, hair pins and a ventilation lid, B. Bailer-Galanda, ibid., pp. 36-40; the original is in the custody of the Auschwitz State Museum.
[53]Cf. E. Gauss (alias G. Rudolf), Vorlesungen..., op. cit. (note 43), pp. 290-293; Gauss, "Chemische Wissenschaft zur Gaskammerfrage", DGG, 41(2) (1993), pp. 16-24 (online: vho.org./D/DGG/Gauss41_2).
[54]J. Bailer, in B. Bailer-Galanda, W. Benz, W. Neugebauer (ed.), Wahrheit und Auschwitzlüge, Deuticke, Vienna 1995, pp. 112-118; cf. my critique "Zur Kritik an 'Wahrheit und Auschwitzlüge'", in Herbert Verbeke (ed.), Kardinalfragen zur Zeitgeschichte, Vrij Historisch Onderzoek, Berchem, 1996, pp. 91-108 (online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/Wahrheit.html); Engl.: "Critique of Truth and the Auschwitz-Lie" (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/cq/critique.html).
[55]G. Wellers, "Der Leuchter-Bericht über die Gaskammern von Auschwitz", Dachauer Hefte, 7(7) (November 1991), pp. 230-241.
[56]J. Markiewicz, W. Gubala, J. Labedz, B. Trzcinska, Expert Opinion, Prof. Dr. Jan Sehn Institute for Forensic Reserach, department for toxicology, Cracow, Sept. 24, 1990; partially published, e.g. in: "An official Polish report on the Auschwitz 'gas chambers'", JHR, 11(2) (1991), pp. 207-216 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/11/2/IHR207-216.html)
[57]J. Markiewicz, W. Gubala, J. Labedz, Z Zagadnien Nauk Sadowych, Z XXX (1994) pp. 17-27 (online: www2.ca.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/orgs/polish/institute-for-forensic-research/post-leuchter.report).
[58]G. Rudolf, "Leuchter-Gegengutachten: Ein Wissenschaftlicher Betrug?", in DGG 43(1) (1995) pp. 22-26 (online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/Leuchter.html); Engl.: "Counter-Leuchter Expert Report: Scientific Trickery?" (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/cq/leuchter.html ); summarized in Rudolf, "A Fraudulent Attempt to Refute Mr. Death", online: www.vho.org/GB/c/GR/Fraudulent.html.
[59]G. Rudolf and J. Markiewicz, W. Gubala, J. Labedz, "Briefwechsel", in: Sleipnir, 1(3) (1995) pp. 29-33; reprinted in Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 54), pp. 86-90 (online Engl.: as note 58).
[60]B. Clair, "Revisionistische Gutachten", VffG, 1(2) (1997), pp. 102-104 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/2/Clair2.html).
[61]G. Rudolf, "Zur Kritik am Rudolf Gutachten", ibid., pp. 104-108 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/2/RudGut2.html).
[62]La Vielle Taupe/Pierre Guillaume, "Rudolf Gutachten: 'psychopathologisch und gefährlich'. Über die Psychopathologie einer Erklärung", VffG, 1(4) (1997), pp. 224f. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/4/Guillaume4.html).
[63]Richard J. Green, "The Chemistry of Auschwitz", May 10, 1998, online: holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/chemistry/, and "Leuchter, Rudolf and the Iron Blues", March 25, 1998, online: holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/chemistry/blue/, with considerable proselytizing 'anti-fascist' bias.
[64]A detailed description of the deficiencies of the paper appeared in "Das Rudolf Gutachten in der Kritik, Teil 2", VffG 3(1) (1999), pp. 77-82 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1999/1/RudDas3.html); Engl.: "Some considerations about the 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Birkenau", online: www.vho.org/GB/c/GR/Green.html.
[65]Richard J. Green, Jamie McCarthy, "Chemistry is Not the Science", May 2, 1999, online: holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/chemistry/not-the-science/. About 50% of the article consists of political accusations and vilification. For a response, see G. Rudolf, "Character Assassins", online: www.vho.org/GB/c/GR/CharacterAssassins.html.
[66]Pelt Report, introduced in evidence during the libel case before the Queen's Bench Division, Royal Courts of Justice, Strand, London, David John Cawdell Irving vs. (1) Penguin Books Limited, (2) Deborah E. Lipstadt, ref. 1996 I. No. 113.
[67]Jean-Claude Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers, Beate-Klarsfeld-Foundation, New York 1989.
[68]Cf. G. Rudolf, "Gutachter und Urteilsschelte", VffG 4(1) (2000), pp. 33-50 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2000/1/Rudolf33-50.html); more exhaustively, in English, online: www.vho.org/GB/c/GR/RudolfOnVanPelt.html and .../CritiqueGray.html.
[69]Robert J. van Pelt, The Case for Auschwitz. Evidence from the Irving Trial, Indiana University Press, Bloomington/Indianapolis 2002; cf. Robert H. Countess, "Van Pelts Plädoyer gegen den gesunden Menschenverstand", VffG, 6(3) 2002), pp. 349-354; Paul Grubach, "Greuelpropaganda des Ersten Weltkriegs und der Holocaust", ibid., pp. 354-359 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/3/Countess349-354.html and .../Grubach354-359.html).
[70]When he addresses chemical questions, he also refers to some degree to the work of R. Green, op.cit. (notes 63, 65).
[71]The Globe and Mail, Sept. 18, 1989, Le Monde, Sept. 19, 1989, Sunday Telegraph, Sept. 24, 1989; see also "Revisionist Historian Suffers Savage Beating" (codoh.com/thoughtcrimes/8909FAUR.HTML).
[72]Michael D. Kelleher, C. L. Kelleher, Murder Most Rare: The Female Serial Killer, Praeger, Westport, Conn., 1998.
[73]Cf. F. Kadell, Die Katyn Lüge, Herbig, Munich 1991.
[74]Published in German, op. cit. (note 52), pp. 36-40; the original is in the Auschwitz State Museum.
[75]Letter from the SS-Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungshauptamt, Oranienburg, to concentration camp commanders, August 6, 1942, IMT Document 511-USSR, cited in: Der Prozeß gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Militärgerichtshof (Nuremberg, 1949), pp. 553f. The letter ordered the recycling of prisoners' hair twenty centimeters or more in length.
[76]Zinc prevents the formation of rust, which is required to form long-term stable iron cyanides.
[77]Like earth alkaline cyanides, zinc cyanides are slowly decomposed by humidity.
[78]For this, see chapter 6.7.
[79]H. Buchheim et al., Anatomie des SS-Staates, Walter, Freiburg 1964.
[80]Throughout his writings, Adalbert Rückerl, one of the most prominent German prosecutors in 'Holocaust cases', dispenses with any mention of material evidence. Instead, he declares documentary evidence the best and most important form of evidence, even in the absence of material evidence for the authenticity and correctness of the documents themselves (in J. Weber, P. Steinbach (eds.), Vergangenheitsbewältigung durch Strafverfahren?, Olzog, Munich 1984, p. 77). Rückerl reports that it is practically impossible to find a suspect guilty solely on documentary evidence, so that, especially given the increasing time span separating alleged crimes from trial, it is almost always necessary to fall back on eyewitness testimony, even though its unreliability is clear, particularly in trials of so-called 'National Socialist violent crimes' (A. Rückerl, NS-Verbrechen vor Gericht, C. F. Müller, Heidelberg 1984, p. 249; Rückerl, Nationalsozialistische Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse, dtv, Munich 1978, p. 34; Rückerl, NS-Prozesse, C. F. Müller, Karlsruhe 1972, pp. 27, 29, 31).
[81]Such total naiveté, combined with legal incompetence, on behalf of the defense is best exemplified in Hans Laternser, Die andere Seite im Auschwitzprozeß 1963/65, Seewald, Stuttgart 1966.
[82]One of the most prominent German advocates of this thesis is Professor Ernst Nolte in his book Streitpunkte, Propyläen, Berlin 1993, pp. 290, 293, 297.
[83]Ref. 50/4 Ks 2/63; cf. I. Sagel-Grande, H. H. Fuchs, C. F. Rüter (eds.), Justiz und NS-Verbrechen, vol. 21, University Press, Amsterdam 1979, p. 434.
[84]Ref. 20 Vr 6575/72 (Hv56/72), Jan. 18-March 10, 1972; this reference number is different from the one Robert Van Pelt quotes in his report: The Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 135 n. 59: 20 Vr 3806/64 and 27 C Vr 3806/64).
[85]Personal communication from the expert, who must, for the time being, remain anonymous for fear of persecution and prosecution. See Michael Gärtner, "Vor 25 Jahren: Ein anderer Auschwitzprozess," VffG, 1(1) (1997), pp. 24f. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/1/Gaertner1.html)
[86]Udo Walendy, Historische Tatsachen, no. 60, Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, Vlotho 1993, pp. 7-10.
[87]For this, see the appendix at the end of this book.
[88]"David Cole Interviews Dr. Franciszek Piper, Director, Auschwitz State Museum" , VHS Video, distributed by CODOH, P.O. Box 439016, San Diego, CA 92143, USA (online: codoh.com/cole.ra (includes audio)); for the abridged text-only version, see: David Cole, "A Jewish Revisionist's Visit to Auschwitz", JHR 13(2) (1993), pp. 11-13 (online: codoh.com/gcgv/gcgvcole.html (excerpt))
[89]Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau 1939-1945, Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1989.
[90]J.-C. Pressac, Les crématoires d'Auschwitz. La machinerie du meurtre de masse, CNSR, Paris 1993; German: Die Krematorien von Auschwitz. Die Technik des Massenmordes, Piper, Munich 1994; if not mentioned otherwise, back references to this footnote refer to the French original.
[91]For a criticism of Pressac's first book, see R. Faurisson, JHR, 11(1) (1991), pp. 25ff.; ibid., 11(2) (1991), pp. 133ff. (online French.: www.vho.org/F/j/RHR/3/Faurisson65-154.html); F. A. Leuchter, The Fourth Leuchter Report, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., Toronto 1991 (online: www.zundelsite.org/english/leuchter/report4/leuchter4.toc.html); for critique of Pressac's second book see: Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 43); for a criticism of the principles underlying Pressac's methodology, see G. Rudolf, "Gutachten über die Frage der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Bücher Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers und Les Crématoires d'Auschwitz, la Machinerie du meurtre de masse von Jean-Claude Pressac", in: W. Schlesiger, Der Fall Rudolf, Cromwell, London 1994 (Engl. online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/trc/index.html#expert-report); Pressac has since been the target of massive, quite unscientific, attacks from Jewish quarters as well; see also Rivarol, March 22, 1996, p. 8 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/archFaur/1995-2000/RF960322.html); ibid., April 12, 1996, p. 4; see also Pierre Guillaume's criticism, De la misère intellectuelle en milieu universitaire, B.p. 9805, 75224 Paris cedex 05, 1995 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/archVT/vt97/vt9309xx1.html).
[92]Robert van Pelt, Deborah Dwork, Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present, Yale University Press, New Haven and London 1996; see also Carlo Mattogno's criticism "Architektonische Stümpereien zweier Plagiatoren", VffG, 4(1) (2000), pp. 25-33 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2000/1/Mattogno25-33.html; Engl.: "Auschwitz 1270 to the Present" (online: http://www.codoh.com/granata/irving-eng.html).
[93]See, in this regard, Norman G. Finkelstein's condemnation in Norman G. Finkelstein, Ruth Bettina Birn, A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth, Metropolitan Books, New York 1998; see also Richard Widmann's criticism, "Holocaust-Literatur versus Holocaust-Wissenschaft", VffG 2(4) (1998), pp. 311ff. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/4/Buecher4.html).
[94]Tsentr Chranenija Istoriko-dokumental'nich Kollektsii (hereafter TCIDK); see also the documents in the Gosudarstwenny Archiv Rossiskoy Federatsii.
[95]Cf. Manfred Köhler, "Pressac und die deutsche Öffentlichkeit", in: Herbert Verbeke, op. cit. (note. 43), pp. 19-30 (online: www.vho.org/D/anf/Koehler.html); Engl.: "Pressac and the German Public", online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/anf/Koehler.html
[96]In the Third Reich, hair cut to a certain length is alleged to have been collected for industrial purposes, after previous delousing, see note 75.
[97]The following remarks are largely based on H.J. Nowak's study, "Shortwave Delousing Facilities in Auschwitz", in: E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 43), pp. 312-324 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndNowak.html).
[98]Epidemic Typhus, which is also called European, Classic, or Louse-Borne Typhus, or Jail Fever, is a louse-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Rickettsia group. Whereas Typhus is the term used in English to refer to all diseases caused by various Rickettsia bacteria, the German term is "Fleckfieber", which, in English, is used only for one type of typhus, the so-called Rocky Montain Spotted Fever that is transferred by ticks; see http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section13/chapter159/159a.htm
[99]O. von Schjerning, Handbuch der Ärztlichen Erfahrungen im Weltkrieg 1914/1918, volume VII Hygiene, J. A. Barth Verlag, Leipzig 1922, in particular, pp. 266ff: "Sanierungsanstalten an der Reichsgrenze".
[100]The Brockhaus Encyclopedia refers to the article by A. Schittenhelm, "Flecktyphus" in Handbuch der Inneren Medizin, 2nd ed., 1925.
[101]R. Wohlrab, "Flecktyphusbekämpfung im Generalgouvernement", Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift, 89(22) (1942), pp. 483-488.
[102]W. Hagen, "Krieg, Hunger und Pestilenz in Warschau 1939-1943", Gesundheitswesen und Desinfektion, 65(8) (1973), pp. 115-127; ibid., 65(9) (1973), pp. 129-143.
[103]Friedrich Konrich, "Über die Sanierungsanstalten der deutschen Kriegsgefangenenlager", Gesundheits-Ingenieur, July 19, 1941, pp. 399-404.
[104]Cf. Wilhelm Stromberger, "Was war die 'Sonderbehandlung' in Auschwitz?", Deutschland in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 44(2) (1996), pp. 24f. (online: www.vho.org/D/DGG/Strom44_2.html).
[105]See also, in this regard, Wolfgang Lambrecht, Otto Karl, Das Handelsprodukt Zyklon B, soon to be published on the internet at www.vho.org/D/Beitraege/Zyklon.html.
[106]Deutsche Reichsbahn Eisenbahnverkehrsordnung (EVO, German Reich railway regulations), annex C to §54 EVO, Vorschriften über die nur bedingt zur Beförderung zugelassenen Gegenstände vom 1. Okt. 1938 (Regulations on Objects Permissible for Restricted Transport Only, dated 1 October 1938), p. 50:
"Die Blausäure muß durch einen von der Chemisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt nach Art und Menge anerkannten Zusatz, der zugleich ein Warnstoff sein kann, beständig gemacht sein." (The hydrogen cyanide must be stablized by an additive, which may also be an irritant, in the manner and quantity recognized by the Chemical-Technical Reichs Foundation.)
[107]L. Gaßner, "Die gesetzlichen Bestimmungen der Anwendung hochgiftiger gasförmiger Stoffe zur Schädlingsbekämpfung in Deutschland" (The legal provisions relating to the use of highly poisonous gaseous materials for pest control in Germany) in Karl Greimer, Handbuch des praktischen Desinfektors, Th. Steinkopf, Dresden 1937, pp. 185f. The fact that Auschwitz concentration camp received Zyklon B without an irritant is therefore not so unusual as sometimes represented in the literature, i.e., as a 'criminal trace'. The well-known exceptional regulations for the Waffen SS are no exception; they merely referred to the applicable Reichs regulations and implementation provisions regulating the use of Zyklon B; see Deutsches Reich, "Anwendung von hochgiftigen Stoffen zur Schädlingsbekämpfung durch die Waffen-SS", Rund-Erlaß des Reichsministers für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft vom April 3, 1941, quoted acc. to Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, 33 (1941), p. 126.
[108]Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpung (German Society for Pest Control), a subsidiary of the I.G. Farbenindustrie AG.
[109]On the history of the firm, mixed with Holocaust story telling, see Jürgen Kalthoff, Martin Werber, Die Händler des Zyklon B, VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1998; much more factual and technically correct is the work by Wolfgang Lambrecht, Otto Karl, op. cit. (note 105).
[110]O. Hecht, "Blausäuredurchgasungen zur Schädlingsbekämpfung", Die Naturwissenschaften, 16(2) (1928), pp. 17-23.
[111]G. Peters, W. Ganter, "Zur Frage der Abtötung des Kornkäfers mit Blausäure", Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 21(4) (1935), pp. 547-559.
[112]G. Peters, "Eine moderne Eisenbahn-Entwesungsanlage", Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, 14(8) (1938) pp. 98f.; cf. F.P. Berg, op. cit. (note. 131).
[113]Gerhard Peters, Blausäure zur Schädlingsbekämpfung, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1933.
[114]Walter Dötzer, "Entkeimung, Entseuchung und Entwesung", in J. Mrugowsky (ed.), Arbeitsanweisungen für Klinik und Laboratorium des Hygiene-Instituts der Waffen-SS, 2nd ed., Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin and Vienna 1943.
[115]F.E. Haag, Lagerhygiene, Taschenbuch des Truppenarztes, vol. VI, F. Lehmanns Verlag, Munich 1943.
[116]F. Puntigam, "Die Durchgangslager der Arbeitseinsatzverwaltung als Einrichtungen der Gesundheitsvorsorge", Gesundheits-Ingenieur, 67(2) (1944), pp. 47-56.
[117]For a more recent treatment of the topic, see: F.P. Berg, op. cit. (note. 131).
[118]G. Peters, Die hochwirksamen Gase und Dämpfe in der Schädlingsbekämpfung, F. Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1942.
[119]DEGESCH, Acht Vorträge aus dem Arbeitsgebiet der DEGESCH, 1942, p. 47; Document NI-9098 from the Nuremberg Trials, table of properties of the gaseous insecticide/pest control product used by DEGESCH.
[120]H. Kruse, Leitfaden für die Ausbildung in der Desinfektion und Schädlingsbekämpfung, Muster-Schmidt, Göttingen 1948.
[121]H. Kliewe, Leitfaden der Entseuchung und Entwesung, F. Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1951.
[122]F. Puntigam, H. Breymesser, E. Bernfus, Blausäuregaskammern zur Fleckfieberabwehr, Sonderveröffentlichung des Reichsarbeitsblattes, Berlin 1943.
[123]G. Peters, "Gefahrlose Anwendung der hochgiftigen Blausäure in Entlausungskammern", Arbeitsschutz, 5(III) (1942), pp. 167f.
[124]F. Puntigam, "Raumlösungen von Entlausungsanlagen", Gesundheits-Ingenieur, 67(6) (1944), pp. 139-180.
[125]E. Wüstinger, "Vermehrter Einsatz von Blausäure-Entlausungskammern", Gesundheits-Ingenieur, 67(7) (1944), p. 179.
[126]A more recent summary of this topic was prepared by Friedrich P. Berg, "The German Delousing Chambers", JHR, 7(1) (1986), pp. 73-94 (online: codoh.com/gcgv/gcdelouse.html); cf. also Berg, op. cit. (note 131).
[127]Entseuchungs- und Entwesungsvorschrift für die Wehrmacht, H. Dv. 194, M. Dv. Nr. 277, L. Dv. 416, Reichsdruckerei, Berlin 1939.
[128]Richtlinien für die Anwendung von Blausäure (Zyklon) zur Ungeziefervertilgung (Entwesung), Gesundheitsanstalt des Protektorats Böhmen und Mähren, Prag o.J.; Dokument NI-9912(1) at the International Military Tribunal, reproduced by Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 43), pp. 94-99.
[129]Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe, TRGS 512, Begasungen, BArbBl. no. 10/1989, p. 72, in: Robert Kühn, Karl Birett, Merkblätter Gefährlicher Arbeitsstoffe, ecomed, Landsberg 1990.
[130]Ludwig Gaßner, "Verkehrshygiene und Schädlingsbekämpfung", Gesundheits-Ingenieur, 66(15) (1943), S. 174ff.; cf. F.P. Berg, op. cit. (note 131).
[131]Der praktische Desinfektor, Heft 2, Verlag Erich Deleiter, Berlin 1941, inside cover; cf. F.P. Berg, "Typhus and the Jews", JHR, 8(4) (1988), pp. 433-481 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/8/4/Berg433-481.html).
[132]TCIDK 502-1-26-117.
[133]Heinz Bobrach et al., Inventar archivalischer Quellen des NS-Staates, K. G. Saur, Munich 1995, volumes 3/1, 1991. So far, we are aware of approximately 110,000 laboratory examinations. Many probative and highly informative facsimiles are to be found in Hefte von Auschwitz, nos. 1 through 19, special editions, Auschwitz State Museum Publishers, Auschwitz Museum, since 1959.
[134]TCIDK 502-1-332-46/46a.
[135]TCIDK 502-1-332-9/10.
[136]According to Pressac, in operation since 1941/42, op. cit. (note 67), p. 25.
[137]Ibid., p. 550.
[138]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 90), p. 157
[139]TCIDK 502-1-333-145
[140]TCIDK 502-1-336-94
[141]TCIDK 502-1-332-37
[142]Gerhard Peters and W. Rasch, "Die Blausäure als Entlausungsmittel in Begasungskammern", Der praktische Desinfektor, September 1941, pp. 93-96.
[143]Gerhard Peters, Emit Wüstinger, "Entlausung mit Zyklon-Blausäure in Kreislauf-Begasungskammern. Sach-Entlausung in Blausäure-Kammern", Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, issue 10/11 (1940), special printing. TCIDK 502-1-332-86/90; it arrived at the Auschwitz construction office on July 3, 1941.
[144]TCIDK 502-1-332-117/119
[145]TCIDK 502-1-332-219
[146]TCIDK 502-1-233-33/38
[147]TCIDK 502-1-322-219
[148]TCIDK 502-1-322-31
[149]Taken from a letter of March 23, 1944 to the Zentralbauleitung (Central Construction Office) in Auschwitz, TCIDK 502-1-332-175.
[150]TCIDK 502-1-332-28
[151]TCIDK 502-1-332-212
[152]TCIDK 502-1-149-135
[153]See also, in this regard, H.-J. Nowak, op. cit. (note 97); H. Lamker, "Die Kurzwellen-Entlausungsanlagen in Auschwitz, Teil 2", VffG 2(4) (1998), pp. 261-272 (online: .../1998/4/Lamker4.html); an English summary appeared by Mark Weber, "High Frequency Delousing Facilities at Auschwitz", JHR, 18(3) (1999), p. 4. (www.ihr.org/JHR/v18/v18n3p-4_Weber.html)
[154]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 55-58, Plans of Buildings 5a/b, pp. 59f. exterior photos. Building alteration plan no. 2540 for conversion to hot air delousing installation, dated July 5, 1943.
[155]Ibid., p. 53.
[156]The gross mass given on the label of a Zyklon B can always refered to the net HCN content of the can, i.e., excluding the mass of the carrier material. That means for instance that a 1 kg Zyklon B can consisted of 1 kg HCN plus some 2 kg of carrier material, i.e., a 1 kg can had a total mass of some 3 kg.
[157]Office of Chief of Counsel for War Crimes, British Military Tribunal, Case against B. Tesch et al., here, the sworn statement of A. Zaun, Hamburg Oct. 24, 1945, Document No. NI-11 396; quoted according to U. Walendy, Auschwitz im IG-Farben-Prozeß, Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, Vlotho 1981, p. 62.
[158]See also the Höß order relating to the avoidance of accidental poisoning during the disinfestation of barracks, reproduced by J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 201. For each barracks with a volume of approximately 40m×12m×3.5m > 1,500 m3, this means a requirement of 15 kg Zyklon B; the 100 barracks in Birkenau camp alone would require 1.5 tons!
[159]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 123.
[160]Ibid., pp. 126-128.
[161]Ibid., p. 129.
[162]Ibid., pp. 151/153.
[163]Ibid., pp. 131f.
[164]D.D. Desjardin, "My Visit to Auschwitz-Birkenau, May 30-31, 1996", Interview mit F. Piper, online: codoh.com/newrevoices/nddd/ndddausch.html.
[165]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 149; photograph of the roof of crematorium I immediately after the liberation.
[166]Ibid., p. 156.
[167]"Herstellung der für die Beheitzungsöfen, sowie für die Ent- und Belüftung erforderlichen Mauerdurchbrüche und Schläuche", letter from the Auschwitz Air Raid Warden, Aug. 26, 1944, TCIDK 502-1-401.
[168]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 159.
[169]Ibid., p. 133; see also the confirmation of changes in the partial recreation of the installation in the letter from the Auschwitz State Museum to Joel P. Hayward, ref. I-8523/26/2120/ 91, dated May 7, 1991; B. Bailer-Galanda, Informationen der Gesellschaft für politische Aufklärung, Innsbruck, June 1991, no. 29, p. 1, relating to Leuchter's statement relating to crematorium I: "Er verwechselt museale Rekonstruktionen der Gaskammern, die dem Betrachter einen Eindruck der damaligen Geschehnisse vermitteln sollen, mit real funktionierenden Gaskammern."(He confuses a museum reconstruction of the gas chambers, intended to provide the observer with the impression of the events at that time, with authentically functioning gas chambers.); Letter from Dr. Scheel, Bonn, German Foreign Office, Jan. 8, 1979, ref. 214-E-Stuparek: "Auch mir ist bekannt, daß es im Lager Auschwitz keine Gaskammern gegeben hat. Die Gaskammern befanden sich im ca. 3 km davon entfernten KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau." (I know as well that there were no gas chambers in Auschwitz camp. The gas chambers were located in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, located approximately 3 km away.)
[170]"Auschwitz: la mémoire du mal", L'Express, 19.-25. January 1995; see also, in this regard, Robert Faurisson's remarks: "Sur Auschwitz, lentement, la vérité reprend ses droits" (The truth about Auschwitz is slowing reclaiming its rights), Feb. 4, 1995 (online: www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/archFaur/1995-2000/RF950204.html).
[171]In the original: "Tout y est faux: [...]"
[172]See Serge Thion (ed.), op. cit. (note 33), pp. 316f.; R. Faurisson, "The Gas Chambers...", op. cit. (note 35), p. 335.
[173]Op. cit. (note 92), pp. 363f.
[174]See, in this regard, the interview with D. Cole, op. cit. (note 88).
[175]Steel reinforcement rods in concrete are only practicable when the iron is deeply embedded in the concrete and therefore protected for decades against corrosion by the very durable alkaline environment of the concrete, since concrete is only slowly carbonated by the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the environment, resulting in a neutralization of its pH value. The reinforcement rods in the ceiling of the morgue in question lie directly on the surface, where the pH value would fall very quickly (i.e., would become less alkaline), particularly when rain water containing CO2 penetrated the concrete; see the crack in Fig. 25 which would quickly allow the entry of rain water.
[176]The present writer has before him a sketch of the ground plan of the crematorium, built in 1939, in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, which is similar in design and dimensions with crematoria II and III at Auschwitz, yet no mass murders are alleged to have occurred at Sachsenhausen. Reference should also be made to the construction design of modern crematoria: H.-K. Boehlke, Friedhofsbauten, Callwey Verlag, Munich 1974, in particular, the crematorium diagram on p. 117, including a doctor's office; E. Neufert, Bauentwurfslehre, Ullstein Fachverlag, Frankfurt 1962, pp. 423f.
[177]Proceedings against master builders W. Dejaco and F. Ertl (note 84).
[178]Schreiber was the Supervising Engineer at the Kattowitz agency of the Huta corporation, which built the crematoria at Birkenau. See also Werner Rademacher, "In memoriam Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Walter Schreiber", VffG 4(1) (2000), pp. 104f. (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2000/1/Rademacher104f.html). He died in 1999.
[179]Van Pelt's testimony in Errol Morris' documentary movie Mr Death, op. cit. (note 9), time given in [min:sec:frame].
[180]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 319-329. Plans for crematoria II and III.
[181]Ibid., p. 183, on the non-criminal planning of crematoria II and III, see, in particular, p. 264.
[182]See also Michael Gärtner, Werner Rademacher, "Grundwasser im Gelände des KGL Birkenau (Auschwitz)", VffG 2(1) (1998), pp. 2-12 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/1/GaeRad1.html); Engl.: "Ground Water in the Area of the POW camp Birkenau", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 3-12 (www.vho.org/tr/2003/1/GaertnerRademacher3-12.html).
[183]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 187, costs and survey of construction design of crematoria II and III.
[184]Judgment of Judge Gray, D. Irving vs. D.E. Lipstadt, op. cit. (note 66), §7.61, 13.76, 13.84.
[185]On Gray, see preceding footnote; J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 213, 218.
[186]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 183f., 302f.; with regards to the original plans by Walter Dejaco, see J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 90), Document 9.
[187]The following list was taken from Carlo Mattogno's "Architektonische Stümpereien...", op. cit. (note 92), p. 29.
[188]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 305.
[189]Ibid., p. 307.
[190]Ibid., p. 327.
[191]Ibid., p. 328.
[192]The Trial of Höß, volume 11a, p. 88.
[193]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 433ff.
[194]Ibid., p. 432.
[195]Ibid., p. 430.
[196]Ibid., p. 488.
[197]See also four Pressac footnotes above; see also Gray, judgment, op. cit. (note 66), §13.69, 13.82.
[198]C. Mattogno, "Leichenkeller von Birkenau: Luftschutzräume oder Entwesungskammern?" VffG 4(2) (2000), pp. 152-158 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2000/2/Mattogno152-158.html); Engl.: "Morgue Cellars of Birkenau: Gas Shelters or Disinfesting Chambers?" (online: http://www.codoh.com/granata/leichen.html).
[199]Archiwum Panstwowego Muzeum w Oswiecimiu (hereafter APMO), BW 30/34, p. 47.
[200]APMO, BW 30/34, p. 40.
[201]TCIDK, 502-1-336 (page number illegible).
[202]TCIDK, 502-1-312, p. 8.
[203]TCIDK, 502-1-316, p. 431, "Zweitschrift" in 502-1-323, p. 137.
[204]Inventory of the delivery negotiations relating to the "Desinfektions- und Entwesunsanlage" (Zentralsauna) of 22. January 1944. TCIDK, 502-1-335, p. 3.
[205]TCIDK, 502-1-316, S. 430.
[206]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 434-436.
[207]Ibid., pp. 285, 302.
[208]See also Pressac footnote above; see also Gray, judgment, op. cit. (note 66), §13.84.
[209]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 49.
[210]Ibid., p. 436. In the inventory list on p. 430, a handwritten entry mentioning a gas-tight door only appears in crematorium II.
[211]Ibid., pp. 227, 311, 312.
[212]H.J. Nowak, W. Rademacher, "'Gasdichte' Türen in Auschwitz", VffG 2(4) (1998), pp. 248-261 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/4/NowRad4.html); Engl.: "'Gas-Tight' Doors in Auschwitz", in: E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 43), pp. 324-336 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndNowak.html).
[213]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 46-49, 425-428, 486, 500.
[214]Miklos Nyiszli's book Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account, Arcade Publishing, New York 1993, alleges, on p. 128, that the inmates took refuge in the gas chamber during air raids. Martin Gilbert's Auschwitz and the Allies (Henry Holt & Co., New York 1981), p. 309, contains the testimony of a female survivor, according to which she, together with many other female arriving inmates, was led to a darkened room to remain there during an air raid. What is most interesting about this testimony is the description of the manner in which some of the women became hysterical during the air raid and believed that they were inhaling poison gas. Another conclusion which could be drawn from this testimony is that the SS were concerned with protecting their inmates from air raids, and that there must have existed several such air raid shelters at Birkenau, which must have been gas-tight, that however remained entirely unnoticed and unstudied (from: S. Crowell, "Technik und Arbeitsweise deutscher Gasschutzbunker im Zweiten Weltkrieg", VffG 1(4) (1997), p. 242, fn. 4 online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/4/Crowell4.html; Engl.: "Technique and Operation of German Anti-Gas Shelters in WWII: A Refutation of J.C. Pressac's Criminal Traces", online: www.codoh.com/incon/inconpressac.html). Another survivor reports that the inmates were regularly led into an air raid shelter during Allied air raids in 1944: Colin Rushton, Spectator in Hell. A British Soldier's Extraordinary Story, Pharaoh Press, Springhill (Berkshire) 1998.
[215]Samuel Crowell, ibid.; see also "Defending Against the Allied Bombing Campaign: Air Raid Shelters and Gas Protection in Germany, 1939-1945", online: www.codoh.com/incon/inconabr.html; "The Gas Chamber of Sherlock Holmes: An Attempt at a Literary Analysis of the Holocaust Gassing Claim", online: www.codoh.com/incon/inconshr123.html; "New Documents on Air Raid Shelters at Auschwitz Camp", online: www.fpp.co.uk/Auschwitz/documents/LSKeller/MoscowDocs.html; "Comments on Mattogno's critique of the bomb shelter thesis", online: www.codoh.com/incon/inconscrmtgno.html; "Bombenschutzeinrichtungen in Birkenau: Eine Neubewertung", VffG 4(3&4) (2000), pp. 284-330; Engl. "Bomb Shelters in Birkenau: A Reappraisal", online: www.codoh.com/incon/inconbsinbirk.html.
[216]The ventilation ducts of morgue 1 are visible in the plans published by J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 224, 289; chapter on the ventilation installations of crematoria II and III: ibid., pp. 355ff.; engine power of the ventilation installations for all rooms in crematoria II and III: ibid., p. 374 and 377; size of the ventilation outlets: ibid., p. 234; Fig. of an outlet cover in the ventilation outlets.
[217]For Pressac see footnote above; a similar opinion has been expressed by Van Pelt, Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 208, as well as by Judge Gray in the Irving vs. Lipstadt trial, op. cit. (note 66), §7.62.
[218]See also, in this regard, Carlo Mattogno, "Auschwitz. das Ende einer Legende", in: Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 43, also the English version), pp. 134f. (online: Ger.: www.vho.org/D/anf/Mattogno.html; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/Books/anf/Mattogno.html). The following remarks are closely patterned after Mattogno; for further details, see Mattogno.
[219]Invoice no. 729 dated May 27, 1943. APMO, D-Z/Bau, nr. inw. 1967, pp. 246f.; ibid., 231f.: invoice no. 171 dated 22. February 1943 for crematorium II.
[220]The engines had a nominal output of 2 HP (approximately 1.5 KW). The output data relate to a back-pressure of 40 mm water column. The increment calculations for estimating the ventilation shaft resistances in crematoria II & III according to engineering handbooks have shown that the back pressure to be expected would probably have been higher (in the region of 50-60 mm water columns), due, particularly, to the primitive lids with many small holes covering the ventilation slit. Two blowers were probably used for this reason. Personal communication from Hans Lamker, a certified engineer.
[221]J.-C. Pressac gives the output of these blowers at 8,000 m³/h, but without proving it (together with Robert van Pelt in: Yisrael Gutman, Michael Berenbaum (ed.), Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1994, pp. 210, 232). Perhaps he simply crudely added the output of the two blowers together, which is impermissible, since the blowers did not work in parallel, but rather, in series (behind each other).
[222]W. Heepke, Die Leichenverbrennungs-Anstalten, C. Marhold, Halle 1905, p. 104.
[223]Gerhard Peters, Emil Wüstiger "Sach-Entlausung in Blausäure-Kammern", Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, 10/11 (1940), pp. 191-196, here p. 195.
[224]J.-C. Pressac, Les crématoires d'Auschwitz, op. cit. (note 90) p. 18.
[225]Pre-heating: J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 221, 223. Demolition of the water pipes: ibid., p. 286; for further details in this discussion, which is just as fruitless, since they are based on the "criminal traces" dreamed up by Pressac, see also, generally, H. Verbeke, op. cit. (note 43).
[226]See also the above footnotes referring to Pressac, in particular, relating to the water pipes; a similar opinion expressed by Van Pelt, Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 296, as well as by Judge Gray in the Irving vs. Lipstadt trial, op. cit. (note 66), §7.68.
[227]E. Neufert, op. cit. (note 176).
[228]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 230. The waste heat of the forced draught blowers was to be used, but since these burned out and were removed, the entire pre-heating project for morgue 1 was cancelled.
[229]TCIDK 502-1-26-21, Jan. 29, 1943.
[230]Robert van Pelt, Deborah Dwork, op. cit. (note 92), p. 330.
[231]Memorandum from Kirschnek dated 29 January 1943. APMO, BW 30/34, p. 105.
[232]Topf, invoice no. 171 dated 22. February 1943 relating to the installation for the ventilation of crematorium II. TCIDK, 502-1-327, pp. 25-25a. See also C. Mattogno, op. cit. (note 218), pp. 136-139.
[233]See also C. Mattogno, "Architektonische Stümpereien...", op. cit. (note 92), p. 31.
[234]APMO, Standort-Befehl, D-AuI-1, p. 46.
[235]For this, see Carlo Mattogno, „Sonderbehandlung" ad Auschwitz. Genesi e Significato, Edizioni di Ar, Padua 2001.
[236]APMO, BW 30/34, p. 78.
[237]See the two footnotes above, with relation to Pressac; van Pelt, Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), pp. 200, 254.
[238]Akademischer Verein Hütte (ed.), Hütte, Ernst und Sohn, Berlin 271942, p. 1087
[239]Werner Rademacher, "The Case of Walter Lüftl", in Ernst Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 78ff. (online: www.vho.org/D/gzz/3.html); C. Mattogno, "Die 'Gasprüfer' von Auschwitz", VffG 2(1) (1998), pp. 13-22 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/1/Mattogno1.html).
[240]Hydrogen cyanide would form poisonous residues with moist food. The gases Areginal and Cartox were used; see also G. Kunike, Das ABC der Vorrats- und Hausschädlinge und ihre Bekämpfung, Theodor Weicher, Berlin 1941, pp. 53f.
[241]Alberto Cantagalli, Nozioni teorico-pratiche per i conduttori di caldaie e generatori di vapore, G. Lavagnolo Editore, Turin 1940, p. 308; taken from C. Mattogno, op. cit. (note 239), p. 19.
[242]Henryk Tauber: J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67) p. 484; Filip Müller, Sonderbehandlung, Steinhausen, Munich 1979, p. 95; Charles Sigismund Bendel: E. Kogon et al., op. cit. (note 42), p. 227; Michal Kula: E. Kogon et al., op. cit. (note 42), p. 231; for a summary and critique of these and other witness accounts on these alleged openings and introduction devices, see G. Rudolf, op. cit. (note 68), pp. 34-37.
[243]Op. cit. (note 67), crematorium II, p. 340, taken ca. between Feb. 9 and 11, 1943.
[244]D. Czech, op. cit. (note 89), p. 454.
[245]Taken from Jean-Marie Boisdefeu, La controvers sur l'extermination des Juifs par les Allemands, volume 1, Vrij Historisch Onderzoek, Berchem 1994, p. 168.
[246]From D. Czech, op. cit. (note 89), p. 398, and J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 335.
[247]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 341. Pressac, of course, alleges the existence of Zyklon B introduction apertures; in actual fact, however, nothing of the sort is to be seen.
[248]Alliied aerial photographs, National Archives Air Photo Library, Washington, D.C., RG 373 Can F 5367, exp. 3185, published by CIA employees D.A. Brugioni and R.G. Poirier, Le Monde Juif, no. 97, January-March 1980, p. 2, allegedly on their own, private, responsibility.
[249]R. Lenski, op. cit. (note 25), pp. 356ff., testimony of aerial photographical appraiser Kenneth R. Wilson, pp. 8927-8941e of the trial transcript; see also B. Kulaszka (ed.), op. cit. (note 25), pp. 353f. According to Wilson, the spots on the photos dated Sept. 13, 1944, cannot be seen.
[250]Figure 42 was taken from the Air Photo Evidence website (air-photo.com/altered/altered.html) with John C. Ball's kind permission.
[251]J. Ball, op. cit. (note 43), p. 48, morgue 1 of crematorium II, photograph dated 13 September 1944, RG 373 Can B 8413, exp. 6V2.
[252]The manipulations on this picture are overly plentiful, such as, for example, an interpolated drawing of a group of inmates allegedly marching over the roof of a barracks! See also J.C. Ball, ibid., p. 42; Ball, "Air Photo Evidence" in: Ernst Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 271-284 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndaerial.html). On the alleged original photographs, it may furthermore be seen that the spots on morgues 1 of both crematoria (II + III) are pointing in different directions; ibid. private communication by J.C. Ball.
[253]County Court Munich, ref. 451 Cs 112 Js 3326/90 and ref. 432 Cs 113 Js 3619/90.
[254]See, in this regard, the letter from the semi-official German Institut für Zeitgeschichte, in which, with relation to the Auschwitz State Museum, the reconstruction of the installations in crematorium I is described and the condition of the original ruins of the crematoria in Birkenau are briefly mentioned: H. Auerbach, Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Munich, letter dated March 20, 1992.
[255]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 365f.
[256]Ibid., pp. 483f.; Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 106.
[257]I am grateful to Carl Hermann Christmann, a certified building engineer, for this information.
[258]I am grateful to R. Faßbender, a certified building engineer, for this information, who also provided the drawings.
[259]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 354.
[260]Kurier, Aug. 30, 1992, p. 20: "Wenn Felsen fallen".
[261]The ceiling was finished towards the winter of 1942/43, while the mass exterminations allegedly began in March 1943; see also J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 338f.
[262]Please do not attempt to bend them back again! More recent photographs show that individuals have obviously broken off two of the three reinforcement rods during similar such attempts. One of these persons who unintentionally broke off one rod was Dr. Fredrick Töben in February 1997, as he advised me personally after his visit to Auschwitz. Another rod was broken off later by unknown person(s), see. Carlo Mattogno, "Keine Löcher, keine Gaskammer(n)" VffG 6(3) (2002), pp. 284-304 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/3/Mattogno284-304.html).
[263]Carlo Mattogno, op. cit. (note 262), has shown that the size of this hole actually increased over the years, probably because the Auschwitz Museum wants to give it a more regular, rectangular shape.
[264]Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 295.
[265]Dino A. Brugioni, Robert G. Poirier, op. cit. (note 248), p. 15; see also G. Rudolf, op. cit. (note 68), p. 39. I am grateful to Fritz P. Berg for this argument.
[266]"No Holes? No Holocaust? A Study of the Holes in the Roof of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium II at Birkenau" published by author in early 2000; online: http://www.revisingrevisionism.com.
[267]Ibid., p. 36.
[268]Carlo Mattogno, op. cit. (note 262).
[269]Höß trial, vol. 2, pp. 99-100.
[270]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 487; on p. 287, Pressac shows a rather primitive drawing with French inscriptions, probably prepared by a former French inmate on request of the Soviet investigation commission right after the war.
[271]R. van Pelt, op. cit. (note 69), pp. 194, 208; caveat emptor: Though van Pelt's translation of Kula's testimony is erroneous, and though the data supplied in Kula's testimony is rather meager, van Pelt uses it to make five different, very detailed drawings-some of it necessarily based on van Pelt's fantasy, and the rest based on Kula's fantasy.
[272]E.g., a cabinet's drawer is a Schublade.
[273]For evaporation rates of Zyklon B, see chapter 7.2. and 7.3.1.3.
[274]The brick-built air intake duct was easily accessible from the attic, where the fans were installed, and the ground floor; see J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 276, 291, 329, 369. The use of the air intake fan to introduce HCN would have lead to some HCN losses through the air exhaust chimney already during the gassing, thus endangering anybody close to those crematoria, but certainly not more than would have been the case when all the HCN had to be removed after the end of a hypothetical gassing, so this would not be an argument against this technique. Also, such a loss of HCN is minimal compared to the loss following Kula's scenario. For more on this, see chapter 7.3.1.3.
[275]See chapter 5.4.1.2.5.
[276]Plan received from R. Faurisson. The same plan is found in J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 401, but of very poor quality.
[277]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 379ff., chapter on crematoria IV and V.
[278]Ibid., p. 384. For an illustration of the gas-tight door and hatches, see pp. 46-49, 425-428, 486, 500.
[279]Ibid., p. 386.
[280]Pressac points to a photo of crematorium IV, ibid., p. 417, as proof of his hypothesis. But since the photograph was taken from the south side while the corridor lies on the north side of the building, the door shown in the plan is the access, drawn on the plan, to one of the undesignated rooms. If he means to refer to crematorium V, hidden in the forest in the background, then it is impossible to claim seriously that anything can be recognized on this photo.
[281]A doctor's office in crematoria, by the way, is quite normal, even today; see also E. Neufert, op. cit. (note 176).
[282]J.-C. Pressac, Le Monde Juif, no. 107, Juli-September 1982, pp. 91-131.
[283]Pressacs argues this way in his new book as well, op. cit. (note 90), pp. 67, 89.
[284]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 386.
[285]Ibid., p. 447.
[286]Ibid., pp. 406, 442-455.
[287]For a prominent example, one need only consider Dachau concentration camp, the crematorium building of which contained a series of DEGESCH circulation delousing chambers, see p. 65.
[288]A point which suggests that a fundamental danger of explosion must be reckoned with during fumigations with hydrogen cyanide; see also chapter 6.3.
[289]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 90), pp. 89f., alleges, in this regard, that a ventilation installation was built into crematorium IV only in late May 1944, but his remarks are untenable in this regard; see also Germar Rudolf, "Some Technical and Chemical Considerations about the 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Birkenau", in: Ernst Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 347f. (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndgcger.html).
[290]W. Rademacher, op. cit. (note 239), p. 80; J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 451.
[291]At least the windows of those inmate barracks still accessible today in Birkenau have been installed in a very sloppy way, so that the wind blows intensely through the gaps. It is, however, questionable whether these barracks are authentic or were rebuilt after the war.
[292]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 456.
[293]Ibid., p. 390.
[294]Ibid., pp. 161ff.
[295]R. Höß, in: M. Broszat (ed.), Kommandant in Auschwitz, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1958.
[296]Judgment of the so-called Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, ref. 50/4 Ks 2/63, p. 99; see note 83.
[297]Interrogation of the eyewitness R. Böck during pre-trial investigations for the so-called Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial: Staatsanwaltschaft beim LG Frankfurt (Main), Strafsache beim Schwurgericht Frankfurt (Main) gegen Baer und Andere wegen Mordes, ref. 4 Js 444/59, sheets 6878ff. Quoted: sheet 6881f.
[298]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 163.
[299]See also J. Graf, Auschwitz. Tätergeständnisse und Augenzeugen, op. cit. (note 43).
[300]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 176.
[301]Pfeiffer, Hansa Luftbild GmbH, aerial photographic analysis of Allied photograph dated Aug. 25, 1944 (note 248), letter dated July 17, 1991; J. Konieczny, The Soviets, But Not the Western Allies, Should Have Bombed the Auschwitz Camp, Polish Historical Society, unpublished paper.
[302]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 253.
[303]See J.C. Ball, in E. Gauss, op. cit. (note 252), p. 283.
[304]TCIDK 502-1-24-77, Nov. 30, 1942; 502-1-24-33, Dec. 3, 1942; 502-1-332-46a, Jan. 9, 1943; 502-1-26-66, April 9, 1943; 502-1-238-10, Sept. 30, 1943.
[305]Le Monde, Nov. 20, 2001; Bild, Nov. 20, 2001; Corriere della Sera, Nov. 21, 2001, p. 35.
[306]C. Mattogno, "Die 'Entdeckung' des 'Bunkers 1' von Birkenau: alte und neue Betrügereien", VffG 6(2) (2002), pp. 139-145 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/2/Mattogno139-145.html); Engl. see the presentation of Russ Granata, "The 'Discovery' of 'Bunker 1' of Birkenau", www.vho.org/~granata/Discovery.html
[307]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 162-164, 171, 177
[308]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 209, drainage plan POW camp Birkenau.
[309]"'Verbrennungsgruben' und Grundwasserstand in Birkenau", VffG 6(4) (2002), pp. 421-424 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/4/Mattogno421-424.html); Engl.: "'Incineration Pits' and Ground Water Level in Birkenau", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 13-16 (online: www.vho.org/tr/2003/1/Mattogno13-16.html).
[310]Only small pieces of the skull were left over which were located in a corner of the pit. Communications of Dr. M. Dragan, whom I helped to investigate the carcass' remains in June 1999.
[311]J.C. Ball, op. cit. (note 43).
[312]F. Meyer, "Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz", Osteuropa, 52(5) (2002), pp. 631-641, here p. 632; for critical reviews of these artciles, see Germar Rudolf, "Cautious Mainstream Revisionism", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 23-30 (online: www.vho.org/tr/2003/Rudolf23-30.html); Carlo Mattogno, "Auschwitz. The new Revisions by Fritjof Meyer", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 30-37 (online: www.vho.org/tr/2003/Mattogno30-37.html).
[313]Absorption and Adsorption are not the same! Absorption is the incorporation (sometimes even consumption) of a matter into a medium (light is absorbed/consumed by a pigment, gas is absorbed/dissolves into a liquid), whereas Adsorption is the adhesion of matter onto a-usually solid-surface (dust on furniture, steam on windscreen, vapours on any solid surface...);
Adsorption is further subdivided in chemisorption, in which the matter is bound to a surface by chemical bonds, and physisorption, in which the bonding is only a physical effect. The transition between both is fluent.
[314]For simplicity's sake, 'cyanide' is frequently understood to mean only the anionic part of the cyanide salts, the cyanide ion, CN-.
[315]Iron Blue is the ISO designation (ISO 2495) for iron cyanide blue pigments of various composition, which are also known as Berlin Blue, Turnbull's Blue, Prussian Blue, Vossen Blue®, Milori Blue, Paris Blue, French Blue, China Blue, Bronze Blue, Steel Blue, Ink Blue, among others.
[316]Taken from the book by Jürgen Graf, Carlo Mattogno, KL Majdanek, op. cit. (note 43), photos XIII, XIV, XIX (online: www.vho.org/D/Majdanek/MR.html); see also the photo in Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know, Little, Brown & Co., Boston 1993, p. 138.
[317]Taken from the book by Ernst Gauss (Ed., alias G. Rudolf), Dissecting the Holocaust, op. cit. (note 22), color page, with kind permission by Carlo Mattogno.
[318]Taken from the book by Carlo Mattogno, Jürgen Graf, Das KL Stutthof, op. cit. (note 43), photos 13 & 14 (online: www.vho.org/D/Stutthof).
[319]I also want to point out that I did not include all this academic, self-serving ivory tower chatter in order to impress people. I was simply advised by many friends, supporters, and adversaries to include all my material since back-references to my German original is no help to most English language speakers, of whom only a tiny fraction can read German.
[320]High polarity, low molecular mass, possibility of formation of hydrogen bonds.
[321]Concentration is the number of parts per volume.
[322]W. Braker, A.L. Mossman, Matheson Gas Data Book, Matheson Gas Products, East Rutherford 1971, p. 301. I have left out some of the less interesting dimensions in this connection: heat capacity (20.9°C): 2.625 J g-1 K-1 (Water=4.187 J g-1 K-1); dielectricity constant (20°C): 114 (Water=78.5); evaporation heat: 28 kJ mol-1; evaporation entropy: 190 J mol-1 K-1; spontaneous combustion temperature: 538°C; flash point: -17.8°C; regarding dielectricity constants, see: R.C. Weast (ed.), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 66th Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida 1986, E 40. However, under normal conditions (1 atm, 25°C), hydrogen cyanide is not a gas.
[323]1 vol.% is 10,000 ppm (for HCN, roughly 12 g/m³)
[324]The lowered vapor pressure caused by adsorption effects in a narrow hollow space leads to early condensation.
[325]The usual explosive in dynamite. Cf. Wilhelm Foerst (ed.), Ullmanns Encyklopädie der technischen Chemie, vol. 5, Urban und Schwarzenberg, Munich 31954, p. 629.
[326]Willibald Schütz, "Explosionsgefährlichkeit gasförmiger Entwesungsmittel", Reichsarbeitsblatt, Teil III (Arbeitsschutz no. 6), no. 17/18 (1943), pp. 198-207, here p. 201.
[327]Impulseless resonance absorption of g-quants (gamma radiation) from a radioactive isotope, here Cobalt: 57Co à 57Fe + g (main quant: 122 keV; quant used for spectroscopy has a different energy)
[328]E. Fluck, W. Kerler, W. Neuwirth, Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 333 (1964), pp. 235-247; J.F. Duncan, J. Chem. Soc. 1963, pp. 1120-1125.
[329]H.J. Buser, D. Schwarzenbach, W. Peter, A. Ludi, Inorg. Chem. 16 (1977), pp. 2704-2710. Iron Blue single crystals of high purity and homogeneity were obtained by slow oxidation of a solution of Fe[FeII(CN)6] in concentrated (!) HClaq. in air. If in the presence of molar amounts of Kalium only some 2% inclusions were observed.
[330]Originally, this term was used only in organic chemistry for chainlike connected, sometimes also branched attachments of equal segments.
[331]Dispersion (lat.: dispersere, distribute) are distribution of two different phases within each other. They are called colloids (gr.: gluelike) if the particles are between 10-8 and 10-7 m small. Such a mixture in liquids scatters the light (Tyndall effect), is thus not clear. But due to electrostatic repulsion (equally charged particles), colloids do not tend to coagulate and precipitate.
Suspension: (lat.: to float) are coarsely dispersed system with particle sizes bigger than 10-6 m.
[332]R.E. Kirk, D.F. Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 13, 3. ed., Wiley & Sons, New York 1979, pp. 765-771; J.A. Sistino, in: Peter A. Lewis (ed.), Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1, Wiley and Sons, New York 1974, pp. 401-407; A.F. Holleman, N. Wiberg, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, de Gruyter, Berlin 1001985, p. 1143
[333]H. Ferch, H. Schäfer, Schriftenreihe Pigmente Nr. 77, Degussa AG, Frankfurt 1990.
[334]K.A. Hofmann, Anorganische Chemie, Vieweg, Braunschweig 211973, p. 677; B.N. Gosh, K.C. Ray, Trans. Far. Soc. 53 (1957), pp. 1659-1661; E.F. Zhel'vis, Y.M. Glazman, Ukrainskii Khim. Zh. 35 (1969), pp. 766ff.; East European Sci. Abs. 5 (1969), pp. 84f.
[335]M.B. Robin, Inorg. Chem. 1 (1962), pp. 337-342; Gmelins Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, 59 (Fe), B4, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1932, pp. 670-732; R.E. Wilde, S.N. Ghosh, B.J. Marshall, Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970), pp. 2512-2516; R.S. Saxena, J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 28 (1951), pp. 703-709; A.K. Bhattacharya, J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 28 (1951), pp. 221-224.
[336]F. Krleza, M. Avlijas, G. Dokovic, Glap. Hem. Tehnol. Bosne Hercegovine, 23-24 (1977, Vol. Date 1976), pp. 7-13.
[337]Photolytic decomposition of the [FeIII(CN)6]3- by means of UV radiation is also conceivable as an alternative. Since the interior walls of the rooms in question are not exposed to any UV radition, this mechanism is ignored here. See also G. Stochel, Z. Stasicka, Polyhedron 4(11) (1985), pp. 1887-1890; T. Ozeki, K. Matsumoto, S. Hikime, Anal. Chem. 56 (14) (1984), pp. 2819-2822; L. Moggi, F. Bolletta, V. Balzani, F. Scandola, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28 (1966), pp. 2589-2598.
[338]pH value of 9-10 according to M.A. Alich, D.T. Haworth, M.F. Johnson, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 29 (1967), pp. 1637-1642. Spectroscopic studies of the reaction of hexacyanoferrate(III) in water and ethanol. 3.3×10-4 M Fe(NO3)3 were exposed with a cyanide excess of likewise 3.3×10-4 mol l-1. With pH values of approximately 10, all the Fe2[Fe(CN)6] was converted into Iron Blue within 48 hours. Cyanate, the anticipated product of the oxidation of the CN-, could not, however, be proven. Perhaps this is further oxidized directly into CO2. If this mechanism is assumed, the result, purely stoichiometrically, is that an alkaline environment must be favorable. This finding is supported by the known fact that hexacyanoferrate(III) is a strong oxidation agent in alkaline medium and is even able to oxidize trivalent chrome to hexavalent, therefore, that is, CN- ions must have oxidized very quickly: J.C. Bailar, Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 3, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1973, p. 1047. An overly alkaline environment would, however, disturb the complexing of the Fe3+- ion by cyanide, which is then displaced by OH- (Fe(OH)3 then occurs as a by-product) and/or the latter can hardly be displaced from the iron.
The driving force in the reduction of the Fe3+ is the considerably more favorable energetical situation of the hexacyanoferrate(II) as compared to hexacyanoferrate(III); see, in this regard, R.M. Izatt, G.D. Watt, C.H. Bartholomew, J.J. Christensen, Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970), pp. 2019ff. Calorimetric measurements relating to the formation enthalpies of Iron Blue from respective educts (in brackets) were as follows:
DH(Fe2+ + [Fe(CN)6]3-)= -66.128 kJ mol-1; DH(Fe3+ + [Fe(CN)6]4-)= 2.197 kJ mol-1.
For this reason, a direct reduction of uncomplexed Fe3+, i.e., not surrounded by cyanide, has an energy disadvantage and is therefore negligible.
[339]Dissociation: is the splitting of a compound, in this case into two differently charged ions (heterolytic) in aqueous medium (electrolysis): HCN + H2O à CN- + H3O+
[340]Correct: hexacyanoferrate(III).
[341]nucleophilic (gr.: core/nucleus loving) is the tendency of a particle to react with positively charged particles. For this, at least a partial negative charge of the nucleophilic particle is required. In this case, cyanide is, due to its negative charge (CN-), much more nucleophilic towards the positively charge iron (Fe3+) than the formally uncharged (though polar) hydrogen cyanide.
[342]pH (pondus hydrogenii) is a measure for the acid content of aqueous solutions (negative, decadic logarithm of H3O+ concentration: -lg10(c(H3O+))): pH < 7: acid; pH = 7: neutral; pH > 7: alkaline
[343]Fe2O(3-x)(OH)2x · x H2O
[344]Naturally, the equilibrium of the reaction Fe(OH)3 + 6 CN- « [Fe(CN)6]3- + 3 OH- under such conditions is strongly on the left hand side. However, this does not mean, as is well known, that a minute quantity of iron(III)-cyanide will not be formed. The latter, however, is withdrawn from the equilibrium in alkaline medium in the presence of excess cyanide, by being reduced by the latter to iron(II)-cyanide, which is considerably more stable in alkaline medium than iron(III)-cyanide; for further details, see also chapter 6.6.1.
[345]In complex chemistry, ligands refer to in most cases negatively charged particles (anions) surrounding in most cases a positively charged central particle (cation, in general a metal ion). In this case, the central atom iron (Fe2+/3+) is surrounded by the ligand cyanide (CN-).
[346]mol is a standard amount of particles: 1 mol = 6.023 × 1023 particles, according to the definition, the number of atoms contained in 12 g Carbon.
[347]Landolt-Börnstein, Eigenschaften der Materie in ihren Aggregatzuständen, part 2, volume b, Lösungsmittelgleichgewichte I, Springer, Berlin 1962, pp. 1-158.
[348]The partial pressure of a gas is it fraction of the total gas content.
[349]The influence is supposed to be based on the fact that carbonic acid (H2CO3, pKA= 6.37) displaces the cyanide ion (CN-) from the equilibrium: 1. CO2 + H2O « H2CO3; 2. CN- + H2CO3 « HCN + HCO3-. Since, however, CO2 is only soluble in water with difficulty and since, in addition, the equilibrium of the reaction CO2 + H2O « H2CO3 (carbonic acid) lies almost completely on the left side, the concentration of carbonic acid in the moisture of masonry itself is several orders of magnitude lower than that of the hydrogen cyanide, even if the content of carbon dioxide in the room under consideration, exposed to hydrogen cyanide, is similar to the hydrogen cyanide content. HCO3-(pKA=10.25), finally, is a weaker acid than HCN (pKA=9.31) and would therefore be displaced by the latter: HCN + HCO3- « CN- + CO2 + H2O. Therefore, even a higher carbon dioxide content in air can hardly influence the absorption of hydrogen cyanide in masonry.
[350]See also J.C. Bailar's remarks on the massive reduction force of Fe(CN)6]3- in the alkaline environment, op. cit. (note 338).
[351]In the immediate vicinity and beyond the freezing point of water, however, the reactivity drops of course.
[352]J. Oudar, Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces, Blackie & Son, Glasgow 1975, pp. 26ff.
[353]R.C. Weast (ed.), op. cit., (note 322), p. D 163.
[354]Protolysis is the splitting of acids (HAc) into their corresponding acid anion (base, Ac-) and proton (H+, or with water to H3O+): HAc + H2O « Ac- + H3O+; here HCN + H2O « CN- + H3O+.
[355]pKA values of HCN: 9.31; R.C. Weast (ed.), op. cit. (note 353).
[356]Valid for ideal solutions.
[357]The hexacyanoferrate acids are very strong acids: J. Jordan, G.J. Ewing, Inorg. Chem. 1 (1962), pp. 587-591. The findings of analyses of disassociation constants show, for hexacyanoferrate(III): K1III>K2III>K3III>0.1; hexacyanoferrate(II): K1II>K2II>0.1; K3II=6×10-3; K4II=6.7×10-5. Thus, hexacyanoferrate(III) is still almost completely disassociated at pH=1, hexacyanoferrate(II) doubly, from pH=3 triply, from pH=5 complete.
[358]G.-O. Müller, Lehrbuch der angewandten Chemie, vol. I, Hirzel, Leipzig 1986, p. 108; the pigment is, however, reversibly soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, i.e., the pigment is not decomposed, but merely physically brought into solution; there is therefore no release of hydrogen cyanide; see also H.J. Buser et al., op. cit. (note 329); see also chapter 8.2.: analytical method for total cyanide content according to DIN: the pigment is destroyed by boiling HClaq.. Iron Blue suspensions (see note 331) have an acid pH value of approximately 4. At this slightly acid eigen pH, as is formed, for example, by acid rain in surface waters, Iron Blue is at its most stable: H. Ferch, H. Schäfer, op. cit. (note 333). In technical applications, the alkaline resistance is increase by adding nickel, cf. R.E. Kirk, D.F. Othmer, op. cit. (note 332); J.A. Sistino, op. cit. (note 332); E. Elsermann, Deutsche Farben-Z. 5 (1951), pp. 419ff.; R. Beck, Deutsche Farben-Z. 6 (1952), p. 231.
[359]Iron(III)-hydroxide is even less soluble in this range than Iron Blue; on the solubility of Fe(OH)3 see chapter 6.6.3.; to be exact, Iron Blue is not totally destroyed at a high pH; rather, the Fe3+ is, initially, merely withdrawn; the base-resistant [Fe(CN)6]4- remains intact; see note 344.
[360]See the studies by M.A. Alich et al., op. cit. (note 338).
[361]J.A. Sistino, op. cit. (note 332); H. Beakes, Paint Ind. Mag. 69(11) (1954), pp. 33f. Mixtures of Iron Blue and phtalocyanine blue generally find application, since both, alone, lack sufficient long-term stability; Degussa describes the lime fastness of Iron Blue as "not good" (H. Ferch, H. Schäfer, op. cit. (note 333)); however, Degussa is referring to its fastness on still uncarbonated, alkaline plasters and concretes: H. Winkler, Degussa AG, letter to this author, June 18, 1991. My own experiments with the dissolution of fresh Iron Blue precipitations resulted in a limit value of pH 10-11 for the stability of Iron Blue.
[362]This property is used in Russian industry, for example, for the passivation of steel pipes against aggressive waste waters, since CN- contained in waste waters coats the interior of pipes with an insoluble protective layer of Iron Blue: N.G. Chen, J. Appl. Chem. USSR, 74(1)(1974), pp. 139-142. But it should be noted that this borders on criminal negligence, since toxic cyanides simply do not belong in waste waters.
[363]DIN Safety Data Sheet VOSSEN-Blau®, in: Schriftenreihe Pigmente Nr. 50, Degussa AG, Frankfurt 1985; see also H. Ferch, H. Schäfer, op. cit. (note 333). Last but not least, pigments, by definition, are coloring agents practically insoluble in dissolvents and binding agents (DIN 55,943 and 55,945).
[364]See also, in this regard, the remarks of a company dealing in colored cements and concretes: Davis Colors, 3700 East Olympics Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90023, www.coloredconcrete.com/davis/Tech/03470.html.
[365]I.V. Tananaev, M.A. Glushkova, G.B. Seifer, J. Inorg. Chem. USSR, 1 (1956), pp. 72ff.
[366]The solubility product of a compound is defined as the product of the entire ionic concentration of the totally dissociated compound: Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 ® 4 Fe3+ + 3 [Fe(CN)6]4-;
KL(Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) = c(Fe3+)·c(Fe3+)·c(Fe3+)·c(Fe3+)·c([Fe(CN)6]4-)·c([Fe(CN)6]4-)·c([Fe(CN)6]4-
= c4(Fe3+)·c3([Fe(CN)6]4-).
The pKS value correlates to the negative decimal logarithm of the product of solubility.
[367]R.C. Weast (ed.), op. cit., (note 322), p. B 222.
[368]C. Wilson, Wilson & Wilson's Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 1B, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1960, p. 162.
[369]In absence of free cyanide ions, the pH stability limit of hexacyanoferrate(II) (total dissociation) is at 11.8, but already very small amounts of free cyanide (10-10 mol l-1) push the limit up to pH=13.
[370]Tartrate, corresponding base of tartaric acid. The mixed potassium-sodium-salt is the famous tartrate (potassium bitartrate), which crystallizes on the cork of wine bottles (Seignette salt).
[371]C. Lapp, C. Wehrer, P. Laugel, Analusis, 13 (4) (1985), pp. 185-190.
[372]G.-O. Müller, op. cit. (note 358).
[373]M. Kohn, Anal. Chim. Acta 3 (1949), pp. 558ff.; ibid., 5 (1951), pp. 525-528; ibid., 11 (1954), pp. 18-27.
[374]See also Winnacker-Küchler, Chemische Technologie, volume 2, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1982, p. 197; H. Ferch, H. Schäfer, op. cit. (note 333); Wilhelm Foerst (ed.), Ullmanns Encyklopädie der technischen Chemie, volume 13, Urban und Schwarzenberg, Munich 31962, p. 794; ibid., volume 18, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1979, pp. 623ff.; H. Watanabe, J. Jap. Soc. Col. Mat., 34 (1961), pp. 5-8; L. Müller-Focken, Farbe und Lack, 84 (1987), pp. 489-492.
[375]H. Tada, M. Kunio, H. Kawahara, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho, 1990, 3 p. Source only available as abstract.
[376]Quantum efficiency is that part of the absorbed light quants which leads to photo reactions under scrutiny, here from 10 to 40%.
[377]L. Moggi, et al., op. cit. (note 337); V. Carassiti, V. Balzani, Ann. Chim. 50 (1960), pp. 782-789.
[378]Photolysis of water leads to the splitting of water into uncharged parts with unpaired electrons (formation of radicals through homolytic splitting (homolysis); see also dissociation, note 339):
2 H2O + hn à H3O· + OH·(hydroxyl radical; hn = photo quant)
[379]M.D. Gurol, J.H. Woodman, Hazard. Ind. Waste 21 (1989), pp. 282-290; S.A. Zaidi, J. Carey, in: Proceedings of the Conference on Cyanide and the Environment, Colorado State University, 1984, pp. 363-377.
[380]Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft (ed.), Gmelins Handbuch, op. cit. (note 335); Ullmanns Encyklopädie, op. cit. (note 374); L. Müller-Focken, op. cit. (note 374).
[381]J.M. Kape, E.C. Mills, Tranp. Inst. Met. Finish., 35 (1958), pp. 353-384; ibid., 59 (1981), pp. 35-39.
[382]K4[Fe(CN)6]3 or Fe(NO3)3.
[383]The literature does not, however, mention this Iron Blue sample as "Prussian Blue", like the others, since it was, at that time, considered to be of another type, i.e., "Turnbull's Blue" or "ferrous ferricyanide".
[384]Compare Ferch, H. Schäfer, op. cit. (note 333); S. Barbezat, J. Réch. Cent. Nat. Réch. Sci. 4 (1952), pp. 184ff.; E. Gratzfeld, Färg och Lack, 3 (1957), pp. 85-108; E. Herrmann, Farbe und Lack, 64 (1958), pp. 130-135.
[385]D. Maier, K. Czurda, G. Gudehus, Das Gas- und Wasserfach, in: Gas • Erdgas, 130 (1989), pp. 474-484.
[386]An interesting study has been conducted in this connection about the reduction of soluble components in concrete standing in water, providing support to the statements made here: not even the concentration of alkali ions, which are the most soluble components of concrete, was massively reduced: H.A. El-Sayed, Cement and Concrete Research, 11 (1981), pp. 351-362.
[387]German daily newspapers, for instance: Süddeutsche Zeitung, Stuttgarter Zeitung, Südwestpresse-Verbund (March 29, 1994), taz, Frankfurter Rundschau (March 30, 1994).
[388]See also W. Schlesiger, op. cit. (note 91), pp. 21-24; G. Rudolf, "Über die frei erfundene Expertenmeinung der 'dpa'", DGG 42(2) (1994), pp. 25f. (online: www.vho.org/D/DGG/Rudolf42_2.html); Engl. in the appendix to this book, chapter 11.5.
[389]See the Bavarian State Ministry for the Interior, Verfassungsschutzbericht 1997, Munich 1998, p. 64. A corresponding reference to the factual incorrectness of the remarks made in this regard by the Arbeitskreis Zeitgeschichte und Politik (in a letter by president Hans-Jürgen Witzsch, dated Oct. 8, 1998, Fürth) was countered by the Ministry as follows: "Your efforts to deny and/or relativize the crimes of the National Socialists have been known to the security authorities for years. [...] We see no occasion for a discussion of gas chambers." The letter, from Dr. Weber of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior dated Oct. 13, 1998, ref. IF1-1335.31-1, probably established a new world record for stupidty.
[390]O. Hähnle, Baustoff-Lexikon, Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1961, p. 384.
[391]Landolt-Börnstein, Zahlen und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Technik, volume IV Technik, part 4b Wärmetechnik, Springer, Berlin 61972, pp. 433-452.
[392]S. Röbert (ed.), Systematische Baustofflehre, volume 1, VEB Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 41983, p. 120.
[393]These mercury penetration tests were performed at the research institute of the VARTA Batterie AG in Kelkheim, Germany, in late 1991.
[394]Method to determine the specific surface with nitrogen adsorption following Brunauer, Emmet, Teller.
[395]K. Wesche, Baustoffe für tragende Bauteile, volume 1, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden 1977, p. 37.
[396]W.H. Duda, Cement-Data-Book, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden 1976, pp. 4ff., as well as my own analysis.
[397]W. Czernin, Zementchemie für Bauingenieure, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden 1977, pp. 49f.
[398]N.V. Waubke, Transportphänomene in Betonporen, Dissertation, Braunschweig 1966.
[399]In the strongly alkaline environment, iron is passivated by a passive layer of Fe(OH)3. 'Botch work' on building sites, i.e., rusting reinforcement rods and cracking concrete after only a few years or decades, due to overly low pH value in the vicinity of the embedded reinforcement rods, is caused by a) an incorrect composition of the concrete (too little cement-it's cheaper this way-and/or too much or too little water-incompetence), or b) by installing the reinforcement rods too close to the surface of the concrete, where the pH value falls strongly after a few years or decades; see notes 396f.
[400]K. Wesche, Baustoffe für tragende Bauteile, volume 2, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden 1981, pp. 51f.
[401]Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, Zement Taschenbuch 1972/73, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden 1972, pp. 19ff.
[402]W.H. Duda, op. cit. (note 396).
[403]W. Czernin, op. cit. (note 397); Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, op. cit. (note 401); N.V. Waubke, op. cit. (note 398).
[404]The reason: no formation of very finely crystalline alumosilicate with higher surface area.
[405]In masonry, this largely corresponds to the neutralization of the hydrogen cyanide by calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 into calcium cyanide Ca(CN)2.
[406]Very humid mortars and concretes, due to proton diffusion, exhibit no sharp carbonation, i.e., pH limit.
[407]From the CO2 in the air and the Ca(OH)2 in the mortar.
[408]F. Puntigam, et al., op. cit. (note 122), pp. 35ff.
[409]L. Schwarz, W. Deckert, Z. Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten, 107 (1927), pp. 798-813; ibid., 109 (1929), pp. 201-212.
[410]The method cannot establish any possible chemical binding of hydrogen cyanide, since only that fraction of hydrogen cyanide was measured which evaporated from the samples.
[411]W.A. Uglow, Z. Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten, 108 (1928), pp. 108-123.
[412]t is the time after which the value has fallen to the 1/e-multiple (0.368...) of the initial value.
[413]Reversible attachment of the cyanide onto the Fe3+ of the cell-specific enzyme of respiration, cytochromoxidase, thereby interrupting the supply of oxygen to the cells, rendering impossible the processes of respiration which are essential for the life of the cell.
[414]Binding onto sulfur (to form rhodanide).
[415]W. Wirth, C. Gloxhuber, Toxikologie, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1985, pp. 159f.
[416]W. Forth, D. Henschler, W. Rummel, Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim 1987, pp. 751f.
[417]H.-H. Wellhöner, Allgemeine und systematische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Springer Verlag, Berlin 1988, pp. 445f.
[418]This is why Michal Kula's statement about the color of gassing victims-"I saw then that they were greenish", proves that he never saw what he claims he did, see p. 131.
[419]ppm stands for 'parts per million'; here, 1 ppm HCN corresponds to 1 ml HCN per m3 (1,000,000 ml) of air.
[420]F. Flury, F. Zernik, Schädliche Gase, Dämpfe, Nebel, Rauch- und Staubarten, Berlin 1931, p. 405; see also M. Daunderer, Klinische Toxikologie, 30th suppl. delivery 10/87, ecomed, Landsberg 1987, pp. 4ff.; considering the age of the first source as well as the vast amount of literature quoted in chapter 5.2.2., Pressac's claim on page 147 of his first book (note 67) that the lethal dose was not known is completely false. It was also already a known fact in those days that HCN could be absorbed via the skin.
[421]DuPont, Hydrogen Cyanide, Wilmington, Delaware 7/83, pp. 5f.
[422]Robert F. Schmidt, Biomaschine Mensch, Piper, Munich 1979, p. 124.
[423]M. Daunderer, op. cit. (note 420), p. 15.
[424]Among toxicologists known as the lethal dose for 100% of all victims, LD100.
[425]F. A. Leuchter, Boston, FAX to H. Herrmann dated April, 20, 1992, as well as private communication from Mr. Leuchter.
[426]Assuming a volume of 10 m3 in the chamber, 75 Liter HCN corresponds to 0.75% by volume, i.e., somewhat more than double the end values taken by Leuchter.
[427]R. Irmscher, "Nochmals: 'Die Einsatzfähigkeit der Blausäure bei tiefen Temperaturen'", Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, 1942, pp. 35f.; on the history of the development of Zyklon B, see Wolfgang Lambrecht, "Zyklon B-eine Ergänzung", VffG 1(1) (1997), pp. 2-5 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/1/Lambrecht1.html) as well as W. Lambrecht, O. Karl, op. cit. (note 105).
[428]Unheated cellar rooms by their very nature, have very high relative atmospheric humidity. As a result of the large numbers of human beings crammed into the cellar, the atmospheric humidity would certainly approach 100%, resulting in the condensation of water on cold objects.
[429]See chapter 5.4.1.2.8., p. 130, for this.
[430]See, in this regard, the excellent analysis of J. Graf, Auschwitz. Tätergeständnisse und Augenzeugen, op. cit. (note 43).
[431]R. Butler, Legions of Death, Arrows Books Ltd., London 1986, pp. 236f.; see: R. Faurisson, "Comment les Britanniques ont obtenu les aveux de Rudolf Hoess", Annales d'Histoire Révisionniste 1 (1987) pp. 137-152 (online: aaargh.vho.org/fran/archFaur/1986-1990/RF8703xx1.html); Engl.: "How the British obtained the confessions of Rudolf Hoess", JHR, 7(4) (1986), pp. 389 ff. (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/7/4/Faurisson389-403.html); D. Irving, Nuremberg. The Last Battle, Focal Point, London 1996, pp. 241-246.
[432]Reference is made here to the mock trials held at Dachau by the Americans; see the speech by Senator J. McCarthy, sent to Dachau as an observer on behalf of the U.S. Senate, Congressional Record-Senate No. 134, Sept. 26, 1949, pp. 10397ff., reproduced in full in R. Tiemann, Der Malmedy-Prozeß, Munin, Osnabrück 1990, pp. 269ff.; see also F. Oscar, Über Galgen wächst kein Gras, Erasmus-Verlag, Braunschweig 1950, pp. 38ff.; R. Aschenauer, Macht gegen Recht, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Recht und Wirtschaft, Munich 1952, pp. 13ff.; Freda Utley, Kostspielige Rache, H.H. Nölke-Verlag, Hamburg 71952, esp. pp. 216ff.; Engl.: Freda Utley, The High Cost of Vengeance, Regnery, Chicago 1949.
[433]See, in this regard in particular, the article in: New York Times, Feb. 23, 25, 29; March 6; July 30; Oct. 7, 1948; Jan. 7, March 2, 5; May 5, 1949; Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb. 23-26, 28, 29, 1948; March 12; Sept. 13, 1949; Our Sunday Visitor, USA, June 14, 1959, 15; Daily News, Washington, Jan. 9, 1949; Sunday Pictorial, Great Britain, Jan. 23, 1949.
[434]Reprinted in its entirety in T. Taylor, The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials, Little, Boston 1992, pp. 645ff.; probably the best analysis of the trial itself was written by Alexander von Knieriem, Nürnberg. Rechtliche und menschliche Probleme, Klett, Stuttgart 1953.
[435]NSG = National-Sozialistische Gewaltverbrechen; National Socialist violent crimes.
[436]See, in this regard, Manfred Köhler (alias G. Rudolf), "The Value of Testimony and Confessions Concerning the Holocaust", in: E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 85-131 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndvalue.html).
[437]E. Kern, Meineid gegen Deutschland, Schütz, Pr. Oldendorf, 21971; E. Gauss, Vorlesungen..., op. cit. (note 43); Jürgen Graf, Auschwitz... , op. cit. (note 43); also: M. Köhler, op. cit. (note 436).
[438]Henry Friedländer, The Holocaust, Vol. 12: "The 'finale solution' in the extermination camps and the aftermath", Garland, New York 1982, p. 113, Testimony of R. Höß, taken at Nuremberg, April 2, 1946.
[439]J.H. Perry, Chemical Engineer's Handbook, Wilmington Delaware 1949, p. 1584.
[440]For a more detailed study in this regard, see Arnulf Neumaier, "The Treblinka-Holocaust", in E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 467-495 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndtreb.html).
[441]Intensive statistical studies in this regard were undertaken by W.N. Sanning, op. cit. (note 41); W. Benz, Dimension des Völkermords, Oldenbourg, Munich 1991; see also G. Rudolf, "Holocaust Victims: A Statistical Analysis · W. Benz and W. N. Sanning - A Comparison", in: E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 183-216 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndstats.html).
[442]J. Bezwinska, KL Auschwitz in den Augen der SS, Verlag des Staatlichen Auschwitz-Museums, Auschwitz 1973, pp. 135f.
[443]Interrogation of Henryk Tauber dated May 25, 1945, annex 18, volume 11 of the Höß trial, quoted acc. to J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 489f.; this testimony is not untypical; see also A. Neumaier, op. cit. (note 440).
[444]On the energy requirements in general and in the crematoria of Auschwitz in particular, see C. Mattogno and F. Deana, "The Crematoria Ovens of Auschwitz and Birkenau", in: E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 373-412 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndcrema.html).
[445]This is the so-called coke gas generator, where coke is burned with reduced oxygen supply, producing a combustible mixture of CO and H2 (and some CO2 and H2O), which burned in the muffle under addition of air.
[446]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 93ff., chapter on the design and functioning of crematorium ovens built in the German concentration camps at that time.
[447]On cremation technology, see C. Mattogno and F. Deana, op. cit. (note 444).
[448]Ibid., pp. 469ff., on several claims made by the witnesses C.S. Bendel, M. Nyiszli, and H. Tauber.
[449]See also J.C. Ball, op. cit. (note 43).
[450]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 161ff.
[451]Letter from public prosecutor Willy Dreßen, Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltung Baden-Württemberg, Ludwigsburg, ref. 110 AR 916/89, July 26, 1989, and Oct. 11, 1989, respectively; see also the book by Ernst Klee, Willy Dreßen, Schöne Zeiten, S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1988: Engl.: The Good Old Days, Free Press, New York 1991.
[452]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), pp. 124-128, 162, 174, 176f., 181, 229, 239, 379f., 459-502. For additional eyewitness testimonies, see also note 442 and E. Kogon et al., op. cit. (note 42), pp. 194-239.
[453]Focus no. 17/1994, pp. 118, 120.
[454]Die Woche, Oct. 7, 1993, p. 8
[455]In: Valérie Igounet, Histoire du négationnisme en France, Editions du Seuil, Paris 2000, p. 652. I thank R. Faurisson, who made me aware of this interview.
[456]2,000 according to R. Höß (H. Friedländer, op. cit. (note 438), S. 112), as well as C.S. Bendel, 3,000 according to M. Niyszli, see note 448.
[457]On the correction to the number of victims in 1990, see also Werner Rademacher, "Die Wandlungen der Totenzahl von Auschwitz", VffG 3(3) (1999), pp. 256-267 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1999/3/Rademacher256-267.html); Robert Faurisson: "Wieviele Tote gab es in Auschwitz?" VffG 3(3) (1999), pp. 268-272 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1999/3/Faurisson268-272.html).
[458]J.-C. Pressac, Les crématoires d'Auschwitz, op. cit. (note 90), p. 147.
[459]J.-C. Pressac, Die Krematorien von Auschwitz, op. cit. (note 90), p. 202.
[460]F. Meyer, op. cit. (note 312). For an overview of the wide range and development of claims about the Auschwitz death toll, see Robert Faurisson, "How many deaths at Auschwitz?", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 17-23 (www.vho.org/tr/2003/Faurisson17-23.html).
[461]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 125.
[462]Ibid., pp. 131f.
[463]Ibid., p. 187.
[464]Ibid., pp. 384-390.
[465]With relation to the killing times, see in, for example: Schwurgericht Hagen, verdict from July 24, 1970, ref. 11 Ks 1/70, p. 97 (5 min.); Final Trial Brief of the Prosecution, quoted acc. to U. Walendy, Auschwitz im IG-Farben-Prozeß, op. cit. (note 157), pp. 47-50 (3 to 15 minutes in extreme cases); E. Kogon et al., op. cit. (note 42), ubiquitous (immediately up to 10 min., more rarely, up to 20 min.); J. Buszko (ed.), Auschwitz, Nazi Extermination Camp, Interpress Publishers, Warschau 21985, in cooperation with the Auschwitz State Museum, pp. 114 + 118 (a few minutes); H.G. Adler, H. Langbein, E. Lingens-Reiner (ed.), Auschwitz, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Cologne 31984, pp. 66, 80 + 200 (a few minutes, up to 10 minutes); Hamburger Institut für Sozialforschung (ed.), Die Auschwitz-Hefte, vol. 1, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 1987, pp. 261ff. +294 (instantly, up to 10 min.); C. Vaillant-Couturier, in: Der Prozeß gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Miltärgerichtshof Nürnberg (IMT), vol. VI, p. 242 (5 to 7 min.); M. Nyiszli in: G. Schoenberner (ed.), Wir haben es gesehen, Fourier, Wiesbaden 1981, p. 250 (5 min.); C.P. Bendel in: H. Langbein, Menschen in Auschwitz, Europaverlag, Vienna 1987, p. 221 (end of screaming of victims after 2 min.); P. Broad in: B. Naumann, Auschwitz, Athenäum, Frankfurt/Main 1968, p. 217 (4 min.), opening of doors after 10-15 minutes: A. Rückerl, NS-Verbrechen vor Gericht, C.F. Müller, Heidelberg, 21984, pp. 58f.; K. Hölbinger in: H. Langbein, Der Auschwitz-Prozeß, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt/Main 1965, p. 73 (1 min.): R. Böck, ibid., p. 74 (screaming victims for 10 minutes following closure of doors, followed by opening of doors, cf. note 297); H. Stark, ibid., p. 439 (screaming victims for 10-15 minutes); F. Müller, ibid., p. 463 (8-10 min.); E. Pyš, ibid., p. 748 (ventilators switched on after only a few minutes); K. Lill, ibid., p. 750 (a scream a few seconds after the introduction of Zyklon B, pall of thick smoke exiting the chimney a few minutes later); transcript of the expert opinion of Prof. Dr. G. Jagschitz, 3rd-5th hearing days of criminal proceedings against Gerd Honsik, April 4., April 30, May 4, 1992, ref. 20e Vr 14184 and Hv 5720/90, District Court Vienna, p. 443 (2-3 min); Dokument 3868-PS, IMT volume 33, pp. 275ff., quoted according to L. Rosenthal, "Endlösung der Judenfrage", Massenmord oder "Gaskammerlüge"?, Verlag Darmstädter Blätter, Darmstadt 1979 (2 to 15 minutes in exceptional cases); R. Höß, op. cit. (note 295: 30 minutes for the entire procedure, including ventilation); Hans Münch, in G. Rudolf, "Auschwitz-Kronzeuge Dr. Hans Münch im Gespräch", VffG, 1(3) (1997), pp. 139-190 (2 to 5 min. in winter) (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/3/RudMue3.html); Salmen Lewenthal, Hefte von Auschwitz, Sonderheft 1, Handschriften von Mitgliedern des Sonderkommandos, Verlag Staatliches Museum Auschwitz, 1972, p. 155 (sudden silence); Dov Paisikovic, in: Léon Poliakov, Auschwitz, René Julliard, 1964, pp. 159ff. (3-4 minute), Franke-Gricksch Report, in: J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 238 (one minute to kill the victims, another until the doors were opened); Rudolf Vrba alias Walter Rosenberg, Alfred Wetzler, ref. M 20/153, Yad Vashem (acc. to War Refugee Board, "German Extermination Camps-Auschwitz and Birkenau", in David S. Wyman (ed.), America and the Holocaust, volume 12, Garland, New York/London 1990, p. 20 (everyone in the room was dead after three minutes); Jerzy Tabeau, in: The Extermination Camps of Auschwitz (Oswiecim) and Birkenau in Upper Silesia (10 minutes, quoted according to Enrique Aynat, Los protocolos de Auschwitz. i Una fuente historica? Verlag Garcia Hispan, Alicante 1990); André Lettich, Trente-quatre mois dans les Camps de Concentration, Imprimerie Union Coopérative, Tours, 1946 (a few moments). Janda Weiss, in David E. Hackett, (ed.), The Buchenwald Report, Beck, Munich 1997, p. 394 (3 min.). If longer killing times appear in the eyewitness testimonies, they refer, not to crematoria II and III, but, rather, to crematoria IV/V, bunkers 1-2, or crematorium I in the Main Camp. The killings in crematoria II and III are therefore alleged to have been committed very quickly.
[466]504 m3 empty volume of the cellar minus 75 m3 occupied by 1,000 persons.
[467]At least because the initial evaporation of the hydrogen cyanide would have led to an immediate condensation of the environmental humidity onto the carrier, more or less interrupting the further evaporation of hydrogen cyanide; see also chapter 7.2.
[468]Such is, for example, the hypothesis brought forth by G. Wellers, op. cit. (note 55), which is similarly incorrect in its findings, due to the incorrect hypothesis that lower quantities of Zyklon B were used: J. Bailer, op. cit. (note 52); W. Wegner, op. cit. (note 49).
[469]J. Buszko (ed.), op. cit. (note 465), p. 118: 6 to 12 kg; Léon Poliakov, Harvest of Hate, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1971, p. 205: 5-7 kg; an analysis of the eyewitness statements has been undertaken by D. D. Desjardin: "Kenneth Stern's Critique of The Leuchter Report: A Critical Analysis", online: codoh.com/newrevoices/nddd/ndddstern.html. The analysis does not, however, take account of the slow release of hydrogen cyanide by the carrier material. See also Desjardin's interview with F. Piper, op. cit. (note 164), where Piper talks about 6 kg per 1,400 victims.
[470]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit., p. 18.
[471]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit., pp. 15 and 188.
[472]Office of Chief of Counsel for War Crimes, British Military Tribunal, trial against B. Tesch et al., Hamburg March 1-8, 1946, Document No. NI-12 207, quoted acc. to: U. Walendy, op. cit. (note 157), p. 83. Note: No staff member of the former Zyklon B producers was ever convicted, because there was no evidence linking them to a crime: Degussa AG (ed.), Im Zeichen von Sonne und Mond, Degussa AG, Frankfurt/Main 1993, pp. 148f.
[473]Y. Henderson, H.W. Haggard, Noxious Gases, Reinhold Publishing, New York 1943, pp. 144f.; J.S. Haldane, J.G. Priestley, Respiration, Yale University Press, New Haven 1935, pp. 223f.
[474]Just think of street cars or buses, where everyone remains near the door, even though there is plenty of room at the rear.
[475]See, for example, the pictures taken by the SS before and after delousing new arriving inmates, neatly separated by sex, as published in the Serge Klarsfeld (ed.), The Auschwitz Album. Lilly Jacob's Album, New York 1980.
[476]Cf. the testimony of André Lettich, Thêse Fac. Med., Trent-quatre mois dans les camp de concentration, Ed. Tours, impr. dl'Union cooperative, Paris 1946; quoted acc. to E. Kogon et al. op. cit. (note 42), p. 210.
[477]See also, in this regard, the detailed analysis of the testimony of SS Man Dr. Hans W. Münch: G. Rudolf, "Auschwitz-Kronzeuge...", op. cit. (note 465).
[478]Crematorium I is deliberately left out of the discussion, since the mass murders allegedly committed there have, in the meantime, after all, been generally questioned.
[479]A reasonable regulation would have been to install the ventilation inlets on one side of the room, and the ventilation outlets on the other side.
[480]For those who wish to see it written out:
Equation for release of HCN from the carrier material (in fractions):
A(t) = e-t/a
in which t = time after the initial release of HCN in minutes
in which a = 43.5/minutes (so as to attain the velocity and low atmospheric humidity at 15°C alleged by Irmscher, note 427)
Equation for the reduction of the HCN content through ventilation:
B(t) = e-t/b
in which b = necessary time for a single air exchange of the room in question.
Equation for the actual HCN content:
For the first 10 minutes (no ventilation, only release of HCN):
C1(t)=(1-A(t))×D
in which D = e/f
in which e = mass of Zyklon B introduced in grams)
in which f = volume of the chambers = 430 m³ (net volume, without the volume taken up by the victims)
e has been selected so as to attain a concentration of approximately 10g/m³ after 10 minutes. For the sake of simplicity, I have used 20 kg = 20,000 g .
Differential equation for the actual HCN content for times after 10 minutes, i.e., with ventilation, iteratively resolved into one minute steps:
C2(t+1)=C2(t)×e-1/b+(A(t))-A(t+1))×D
in which (A(t))-A(t+1))×D is the quantity of HCN evaporating from the carrier with each new minute.
[481]In order to keep the HCN concentration in those make-shift delousing chambers of BW 5a and BW 5b constant over 12 hours, this would have required the application of an initial concentration at least twice or thrice as high as 10 g/m², but this would have been impossible due to lack of sufficient Zyklon B. The quantities of Zyklon B necessary for such use would have corresponded to 24 to 30 kg per day, or approximately 9 to 11 tons per year, which is roughly the total quantity delivered to the camp, leaving no HCN for homicidal gassings. Hence, this scenario is unrealistic for our purposes, because our scenario requires homicidal gassings; see also chapter 7.3.1.3.
[482]The equations determined in chapter 6.7.4. consist of two terms, which can be handled individually or both together, and it is not at all clear, which time value is to be used when switching over from gassing to airing, which all influences the result.
[483]I am not going to explain basic statistical laws of diffusion here. This law is so commonly known that anybody interested in it might look it up in any physics book. Maybe the iterative steps I used where a bit too big, so there is an error margin in my calculations, but if so, it affects all series, so it should not make a difference regarding my comparisons.
[484]See chapter 5.4.1.1. and footnote 183. Though tar is not gas-tight, it still prevents most of the water and HCN to penetrate it.
[485]Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Atemschutz-Merkblatt, Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne Oct. 1981.
[486]DIN 3181 part 1, draft, Atemfilter für Atemschutzgeräte. Gas- und Kombinationsfilter der Gasfilter-Typen A,B,E und K. Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfung, Kennzeichnung, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, May 1987.
[487]War Department, Hydrocyanic-Acid-Gas Mask, US Government Printing Office, Washington 1932; War Department, Technical Manual No. 3-205, US Government Printing Office, Washington 1941.
[488]R. Queisner, "Erfahrungen mit Filtereinsätzen und Gasmasken für hochgiftige Gase zur Schädlingsbekämpfung", Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie und Schädlingsbekämpfung, 1943, pp. 190-194.
[489]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit., (note 67), p. 16.
[490]There are, of course, witnesses who allege that gas masks were worn. Protective garment, however, is never mentioned.
[491]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 447
[492]Annales d'Histoire Révisionniste 7 (1989), pp. 212f.
[493]Cf. Vincent Reynouard, "Deutsch-Französische Völker-Freundschaft", VffG, 4(3&4) (2000), pp. 410-415 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2000/3/Reynouard410-415.html)
[494]James Bacques, Other Losses, Stoddart, Toronto 1989; Bacque, Crimes and Mercies, Little, Brown & Co., Toronto 1996.
[495]Hans Jürgen Nowak, op. cit. (note 97), pp. 323f.; Manfred Gerner, Michael Gärtner, Hans Jürgen Nowak, "Die Kosten von Auschwitz" VffG, 6(2) (2002), pp. 146-158; (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/2/GernerGaertnerNowak146-158.html); on the medical care, see the unpublished studies by the late C. Jordan on the G. Weise case; see also ibid., "The German Justice System: A Case Study", in E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 147-181 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndpoljust.html).
[496]See Friedrich P. Berg, "The Diesel Gas Chambers: Ideal for Torture-Absurd for Murder", in: Ernst Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 435-465 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/fndieselgc.html).
[497]If for no other reason because, according to the establishment literature, CO was also already used in connection with the euthanasia action.
[498]According to a part of the answer from "Nizkor" (www2.ca.nizkor.org/features/qar/qar29.html) to question no. 2: "Why did they use this instead of a gas more suitable for mass extermination?" (www.zundelsite.org/english/debate/debatetoc.html) of a flyer distributed by the Institute for Historical Review: 66 Questions and Answers on the Holocaust, IHR, Costa Mesa, undated.
[499]C. Mattogno (Rome) has also taken samples from some of the installations ('gas chambers') at Birkenau and has had them analyzed; the findings concur with those of F.A. Leuchter and G. Rudolf. C. Mattogno, letter to the author, Rome, May 26, 1992.
[500]The video documentation on Leuchter's investigations at Auschwitz can be ordered from: Samisdat Publishers Ltd., 206 Carlton Street, Toronto Canada, M5A 2L1 (E-mail: ezundel@cts.com).
[501]The iron content was also determined by means of ICP spectrometer. The values lay between 6 and 7.5 g per kg.
[502]In this procedure, the sample is to semi-concentrated sulfuric acid for 24 hours. The gases released are only collected by means of diffusion in a KOH collector.
[503]Driving out the hydrogen cyanide by boiling the sample for one hour in aqueous HCl in a slightly reductive medium (SnCl2), Driving out in the continuous stream of air, collection in the aqueous KOH collector. Finally, photometric or titrimetric testing depending on the concentration in each case. Proof of iron was achieved here by the ICP spectrometer.
[504]F.A. Leuchter, press release, Boston, 13. February 1990.
[505]J. Bailer, op. cit. (note 52); similar to ibid., in B. Bailer-Galanda, et al. (ed.), op. cit. (note 54), pp. 112-118
[506]Op. cit.(note 45); ibid., op. cit. (note 67), p. 133.
[507]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 53.
[508] Letter from the Prof. Dr. Jan Sehn Institute for Forensic Expert Opinions, Department for Forensic Toxicology, Cracow, to W. Wegner, undated (winter 91/92), (illegible signature) unpublished.
[509]J.-C. Pressac, op. cit. (note 67), p. 514, plan of Birkenau camp with barracks numbering.
[510] It is also conceivable that the unfumigated samples were contaminated during preparation for analysis, perhaps through an improperly cleaned ball mill, in which samples with a high cyanide content had previously been crushed. The reason for the good reproducibility may be that there is hardly any carbonate in brick, since it acts as a disturbance ion.
[511]John Clive Ball, The Ball Report, Ball Resource Services Ltd., Delta, BC, Canada, 1993.
[512]E. Gauss, Vorlesungen..., op. cit. (note 43), pp. 163-170; 290-294.
[513]The first series of studies, undertaken by J. Markiewicz, W. Gubala, J. Labedz, and B. Trzcinska, were never published by the authors of the studies. Only the revisionists have published their findings, after the article was smuggled out of the Jan Sehn Institute by unknown persons in 1991; see also note 56; for further remarks on this example of 'political science', see G. Rudolf, op. cit. (note 58).
[514]A word on the HCN-CO2 mixture used by the Poles for their fumigation experiments. In their view, CO2 has a negative influence on the adsorption of HCN in the masonry. Their own test results are, however, in contradiction to this view; they are also incorrect in assuming that CO2 could have a negative influence on the absorption of HCN; see also note 349, p. 165.
[515]This claim played a role in the verdict which should not be underestimated, cf. judgment Gray, op. cit. (note 66), §13.79; cf. note 68.
[516]Pelt Report, op. cit. (note 66), p. 307.
[517]DIN 4108, part 3 to 5, deals with diffusion of steam into building materials. The most important coefficient for building materials is the so-called coefficient of diffusion resistance; this is a dimensionless number indicating, how much longer the diffusion of steam takes to penetrate a layer of certain materials compared to the time it takes to diffuse through the same layer of still air. This coefficient is valid not only for water vapor, but also for gaseous hydrogen cyanide as well as for any other gas. In the list of 100 different building materials compiled in DIN 4108 part 4, one can find lime and cement mortar with diffusion resistances from 15 to 35, in which case the resistance grows with increasing cement content, for gypsum plaster, the coefficient is 10, for brick walls 5 to 10, for glass wool mats it is 1. That means, if a gas diffuses through a layer of still air with a speed of 1 cm per second, it does take 15 to 35 seconds to diffuse through a 1 cm thick layer of lime or cement mortar and 5 to 10 seconds to diffuse just as deep into a brick wall. (I am grateful to Mr. C.H. Christmann for this reference.) In this regard, compare also the analysis about the porosity of masonry, graph 7, p. 183.
[518]B. Kulaszka (ed.), op. cit. (note 25), p. 363 (protocol p. 33-9291).
[519]Arthur R. Butz, "Historical Past vs. Political Present", JHR , 19(6) (2000), pp. 12ff. (online: www.ihr.org/jhr/v19/v19n6p12_Butz.html).
[520]Incidentally, all the plaster in the church had be to knocked off the walls and replaced, since there was no other way to get rid of the Iron Blue. Communication from Konrad Fischer, head architect during the renovation of the church at that time.
[521]With regards to the homicidal 'gas chambers', the period between March 1943 and the fall of 1944 is 'attested to'. Building 5a was completed in the fall of 1942 (TCIDK, 502-1-214; acc. to 502-1-22-19, it was completed already by June 20, 1942), but converted to operate with hot air in the summer of 1943 (J.-C. Pressac, op. cit.. (note 67), pp. 55-58; acc. to TCIDK, 502-1-24, equipment of BW 5a and 5b with hot air disinfestation facility started on Nov. 1, 1942).
[522]For the homicidal 'gas chambers', this follows from the alleged victim totals of several hundred thousand victims per chamber; for the delousing installations, this follows from the maximum number of days available in 3/4 of a year (approximately 270 days).
[523]See also chapters 7.1. and 7.3.1.3.
[524]Crematorium II was completed in February/March, after which the gassings are alleged to have begun in mid-March or the end of March. With relation to the delousing installations, we have no data, but one may assume that the building was used as soon as it was completed, even if it must be expected that the delousing chambers could not be used for a while, since, for delousing, it was necessary first to install all the equipment after completion of the building, i.e., undressing rooms, showers, saunas, heating, etc. The same applies, of course, to the crematoria/morgues.
[525]See also chapters 7.3.2.2.f.
[526]See also chapters 6.5.1., 6.5.3., 6.7.2.f.
[527]See also chapters 6.5.2., 6.7.2.f.
[528]According, for example to the testimony of M. Buki in the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial; see H. Langbein, Der Auschwitz-Prozeß, op. cit. (note 465), p. 96.
[529]Pressac (note 67) and van Pelt (note 69) are true masters in the composition of such inventions. The court historians either fail to notice or deliberately ingore the fact that these fairy tales are not based upon documents or physical reality.
[530]Christlich Soziale Union, Christian Social Union.
[531]Christlich Demokratische Union, Christian Democratic Union. They actually refused to be called conservative, and rightly so, since only a minority of their members has conservative views, the majority having quite liberal views. The CDU has no section in Bavaria, where the CSU plays its role, though the Bavarian CSU is more conservative than the 'Prussian' CDU.
[532]Today, the German government consists of those who demonstrated against such politics in the 70s and 80s, and as was to be expected, they do even worse in politics: They wage war in Serbia and Afghanistan, and they are increasingly dismantling the Germans' civil rights.
[533]Named after the then German Secretary of Justice.
[534]Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, National Democratic Party of Germany.
[535]Regarding its difficulty, the German Diplom is almost an equivalent to an Anglo-Saxon PhD.
[536]Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, Socialdemocratic Party of Germany.
[537]Freie Demokratische Partei, Free Democratic Party.
[538]In Germany, military service is compulsory for all men physically fit to do so.
[539]Ökologisch Demokratische Partei, Ecological Democratic Party.
[540]Heitz & Höffkes, Essen 1989.
[541]The names of those persons are: Hans Filbinger, Philipp Jenninger, and Werner Höfer.
[542]2nd edition, Theses & Dissertations Press, Chicago, IL, 2003, pp. 49-53.
[543]See also my paper "Wissenschaft und ethische Verantwortung", in Andreas Molau (ed.), Opposition für Deutschland, Druffel-Verlag, Berg am Starnberger See 1995, pp. 260-288.
[544]Moreover, the Remer couple could remember as little from this chance meeting as from the two subsequent occasions on which I met them, when I appeared as an unknown, unimportant person among a crowd. (Summer 1991: On the return from my first Auschwitz trip, I accompanied Karl Philipp on a brief visit during a reception on Remer's 80th birthday. Philipp was Remer's friend who had initially contacted me, who had driven me to Auschwitz and helped me there, and who later helped me with all kinds of technical and infrastructural/logistical support. Autumn 1992: Dinner of the defense team during the trial against Remer, after the court had refused to accept me as an expert witness.) The Remers came to know me personally only in January 1995, when the Stuttgart District Court went to Spain to interrogate the Remer couple as part of the trial against me on account of the commentary that Remer had added to the report without asking me. Even then in Spain they needed to ask who I was. They got to know me fairly well only after I had fled to Spain in early 1996, where I resided for four months some 50 miles west of Remer's residence in exile.
[545]H. Buchheim et.al., Anatomie des SS-Staates, Walter, Freiburg 1964.
[546]Chapter 244 of the German Criminal Code provides that the court may reject evidence on the grounds of 'common knowledge' or complete unsuitability. This happens mostly in 'Holocaust' cases, and, indeed, without examination of the submitted evidence, to determine whether it is actually unsuitable or whether it may be able to defeat 'common knowledge', which it might do if it were superior to evidence previously submitted. In trials against revisionists and also against supposed 'National Socialist criminals,' exculpatory evidence is de facto verboten, a classic indication of a show trial.
[547]My hesitation in taking legal measures against Remer was later used by the court as an indication of my complicity with him.
[548]See chapter 11.4.1. for the text Remer had added. Reprinted in German in: Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 54), pp. 109-115 (online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/Remer.html).
[549]I was only paid expenses.
[550]Published in German in Herbert Verbeke (ed.), op. cit. (note 54), pp. 59-63 (online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/Webfehler.html).
[551]See the English translation Dissecting the Holocaust, op. cit. (note 22).
[552]Die Zeit, Dec. 31, 1993, p. 51.
[553]German Federal Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer in Süddeutschen Zeitung, acc. to Rheinischer Merkur, April 16, 1999.
[554]Ref. 4 Ls 15 Js 1535/95.
[555]Unfortunately, my wife took my two children and left my in January 1999, initiating divorce proceedings in early 2000.
[556]"Objektive Selbstzerstörung", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 15, 1994, p. 21.
[557]Dr. Ulrich Goll, ref. 4104-III/185, Sept. 23, 1996; cf. IDN, "'Appell der 500' vor Landtag", DGG 44(4) (1996), pp. 9f. (online: www.vho.org/D/DGG/ IDN44_4.html); VHO, "Zur Wissenschaftsfreiheit in Deutschland", VffG 1(1) (1997), pp. 34-37 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/1/ VHOWiss1.html).
[558]Cf. Karl R. Popper, Objektive Erkenntnis, Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 41984.
[559]On Wilhelm Stäglich, op. cit. (note 41): German Federal Constitutional Court, ref., ref. 1 BvR 408f./83, reprinted in Wigbert Grabert, Geschichtsbetrachtung als Wagnis, Grabert, Tübingen 1984, pp. 287ff.
[560]See G. Herzogenrath-Amelung: "Gutachten im Asylverfahren von Germar Rudolf", VffG, 6(2) (2002), pp. 176-190, here pp. 180-182 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2002/2/Amelung176-190.html).
[561]Günther Anntohn, Henri Roques, Der Fall Günter Deckert, DAGD/Germania Verlag, Weinheim 1995 (District Court Mannheim, ref. (13) 5 Ns 67/96) online: www.vho.org/D/Deckert)
[562]VffG 3(2) (1999), p. 208; online: www.vho.org/VffG/1999/2/Zornig208.html. As a consequence of his prosecution, Bock subsequently changed his defense strategy, and when assigned to defend the Australian revisionist Dr. Fredrick Töben in November 1999, he remained completely silent in order to prevent further prosecutions, hence rendering any defense of Dr. Töben impossible.
[563]Hamburger Morgenpost, Nov. 14, 2000; see "Verteidiger Rieger siegt in Verfahren wegen 'unzulässiger Verteidigung'", VffG 4(3&4) (2000), p. 457 (online: www.vho.org/News/D/News3_00.html#n7)
[564]German Federal Supreme Court, BGH, ref. 5 StR 485/01; see German daily press from April 11, 2002 (taz, Bild, Frankfurter Rundschau, Stuttgarter Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, all on page 2!).
[565]There is always the possibility that the defense can hire its own stenographer to record the proceedings and type them up later. Then there would have to be a motion to insert this record into the record of the proceedings. Motions of this sort are always denied because the German Code of Criminal Procedures does not provide any rules for such records. In order to defeat the usual refusal of the court to accept such a motion on the grounds that the transcript is factually incorrect, the motion would have to be made either before the dismissal of the witness or immediately after the response of the accused or the defense attorney. Thereby the doubts of the court could be allayed through requestioning of the witnesses or the accused. Although the record of the statements can be entered into the record of the proceedings with the (denied) motion in this way, they will still be irrelevant in appeals and revision procedures. Considering the expense to the accused in time and money of such an effort over the course of, say, a thirty-day trial with twenty witnesses, it should be clear how impractical this scenario is.
[566]The first edition was mailed out in some 15 copies in January 1992, the second in February 1992, the first version of the third edition in November 1992, and a slightly revised version of this edition (second version) in December 1992.
[567](The (German weekly) Time lies!), edited by O.E. Remer, Verlag Remer Heipke, Bad Kissingen 1992 (online: www.vho.org/D/Beitraege/Zeit.html).
[568]G. Herzogenrath-Amelung, op. cit. (note 560), pp. 186f.
[569]This brochure was mainly written by me (under four pen names), but made fit for publication by Karl Philipp, who made some changes to it and chose Remer as editor and publisher to protect me legally (which worked). As far as I know, Remer was not involved in the actual production of the brochure, and I was never involved in its distribution. Therefore, no link ever existed between my writing the brochure-without any intention to do it for Remer-and the fact that Philipp put Remer's name on it (probably even without Remer knowing it) after I had finished my writings. True, I never complained about it, but there was, realistically seen, no other way than Philipp's way to have this brochure published swiftly-which was necessary since it was a reaction to a series of articles in a weekly newspaper-, and I did not intend to reveal my pen names to anybody anyway, so why bother?
It should be mentioned in this context that this brochure still causes me some trouble in that my use of four pen names for it (Dipl.-Ing. Hans Karl Westphal, engineer; Dr. Werner Kretschmer, barrister, Dr. Christian Konrad, historian, Dr.Dr. Rainer Scholz, chemist and pharmacologist), all of them pretending to have a different academic degree, led to the accusation of dishonesty and attempted confidence trickery (see, e.g., www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/chemistry/not-the-science/). The background of these pen names was not the attempt to impress people with phony doctorates, though I must admit that it can have this effect. I therefore wish to set the record straight by repeating what I stated already elsewhere (www.vho.org/GB/c/GR/CharacterAssassins.html):
The first revisionist publication I was involved in was a brochure with the title Die Zeit lügt!, published in October 1992. It was a reply to two lengthy articles of a certain Till Bastian published in summer 1991 in the German weekly Die Zeit (no. 39, Sept. 18, 1992, p. 104, and no. 40, Sept. 25, 1992, p. 90). This brochure is the fairest writing about the Holocaust controversy that ever appeared, simply for the reason that both articles of Bastian were reprinted in their entirety, and discussed afterwards. The reader always has the means to check both points of view. Nobody else has ever done that before or since-on either side of this discussion.
Nowhere in that brochure is reference made to the special expertise and qualifications of the authors given-simply because these names were added after the brochure was written-nor would the claims and arguments brought forward in this brochure require the qualifications of these experts. Though it was certainly incorrect to do this, I would like to explain why it was done, as it was certainly not done in order to claim qualifications that are actually not present. Let me therefore be a bit more detailed.
In spring and summer 1992, I was called by several defense lawyers as an expert witness in several trials imposed on revisionists in Germany (Udo Walendy, District Court Bielefeld, February 1992; Gerd Honsik, Upper District Court Munich, March 1992; David Irving, County Court Munich, May 1992; Detscher, County Court Munich, July 1992; Max Wahl, District Court Munich, July 1992). In these trials-as in all trials against revisionists-the judges rejected any evidence presented by the defense, including all expert witnesses. In one case, I had to learn that a chemist (me) was rejected because he was neither a toxicologist nor a historian, an engineer (Leuchter) was rejected because he was neither a chemist nor a historian, and a historian (Prof. Haverbeck) was rejected because he was neither a chemist nor an engineer. My conclusions were that one obviously had to be at the same time an engineer, a chemist, a toxicologist, a historian and perhaps even a barrister to be accepted as an expert witness at a German court of law. The legal process being so perverted in Germany, I decided to mock it with a parody by inventing a person with all these features, but then Karl Philipp and I realized that this would be a bit unrealistic, so we split that person into many. That is the background. I think it is both tragic-for the victims of those German kangaroo trials-as well as funny-for the neutral observer to see the desperate attempts of German judges to keep any evidence out-, but the reader does, of course, not have to agree with me on that.
[570]E. Gauss (ed.), Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte, op. cit. (note 43); Engl.: Dissecting the Holocaust, op. cit. (note 22).
[571]Herbert Verbeke (ed.), Auschwitz: Nackte Fakten, op. cit. (note 43).
[572]This article was completed after the house search of the small Berlin publishing house Verlag der Freunde at the end of November 1995 (triggered by a revisionist article of mine they had published), when it had become clear that the documentation of my trial intended to be published by this publisher could not appear; taken from Staatsbriefe 1/1996, Verlag Castel del Monte, Postfach 14 06 28, 80456 Munich, pp. 4-8.
[573]For this version, the text of Remer's comments were retyped, trying to keep the layout as close to the original as possible. The original German version of this is available online at www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/Remer.html.
[574]See notes 458-460.
[575]There are, of course, other sources contradicting this, see Reinhold Schwertfeger, "Gab es Gaskammern im Altreich?", VffG, 5(4) (2001), pp. 446-449 (online: www.vho.org/VffG/2001/4/Schwertfeger446-449.html).
[576]Cf. the summarizing article of Arnulf Neumaier, op. cit. (note 440).
[577]Asides from note 576 compare the book of Demjanjuk's defense lawyer: Yoram Sheftel, The Demjanjuk Affair. The Rise and Fall of the Show Trial, Victor Gollancz, London 1994; cf. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 11, 1995, p. 8.
[578]Shmuel Krakowski, archives director of Yad Vashem, and Professor Yehuda Bauer finally admitted in 1990 that "the Nazis never made soap from human fat", The Jerusalem Post International Edition, May 5, 1990; see M. Weber, JHR 11(2) (1991) pp. 217-227 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Journals/JHR/11/2/Weber217-227.html).
[579]Joachim Hoffmann, Stalins Vernichtungskrieg, Verlag für Wehrwissenschaften, Munich 1995; Engl.: Stalin's War of Extermination 1941-1945, Theses & Dissertations Press, Capshaw, AL, 2001.
[580]As such Helge Grabitz, NS-Prozesse - Psychogramme der Beteiligten, 2nd ed., C.F. Müller, Heidelberg 1986, pp. 64-90; cf. Manfred Köhler, op. cit. (note 436).
[581]F. Meyer, "Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz", Osteuropa, 52(5) (2002), pp. 631-641, here p. 632; for critical reviews of these artciles, see Germar Rudolf, "Cautious Mainstream Revisionism", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 23-30 (online: www.vho.org/tr/2003/Rudolf23-30.html); Carlo Mattogno, "Auschwitz. The new Revisions by Fritjof Meyer", The Revisionist, 1(1) (2003), pp. 30-37 (online: www.vho.org/tr/2003/Mattogno30-37.html).
[582]In Germany, courts of law do not hold sessions on Saturdays-with this exeption.
[583]Also published in E. Gauss (ed.), op. cit. (note 22), pp. 561-564.
[584]Online: www.vho.org/D/Nolte; no Engl. version available.
[585]Online: www.vho.org/D/dfr; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/Books/trc
[586]"Naht ein deutscher Bürgerkrieg?", Staatsbriefe 6(6) (1995), pp. 6-8, online German only: www.vho.org/D/Staatsbriefe/Rudolf6_6.html.
[587]G. Rudolf and J. Markiewicz, W. Gubala, J. Labedz, "Briefwechsel", Sleipnir, 1(3) (1995) pp. 29-33; online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal/LeuchterR.html; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/Books/cq/leuchter.html; G. Rudolf, "Kein Brief ins Gefängnis?", Sleipnir 1(2) (1995), not online. The criminal investigation against me in that case, Public Attorney's Office I in the District Court of Berlin, ref. 81 Js 1385/95, was dropped on March 21, 1996, under sec. 154 German Penal Procedure Rules (StPO), because the expected punishment "would not carry much weight" in comparison to the one expected from the District Court of Stuttgart in my first "thought crime" trial.
[588]Online: www.vho.org/D/Kardinal; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/Books/cq
[589]Online: www.vho.org/D/rga; Engl.: to be posted soon at www.vho.org/GB/Books/trr.
[590]Online: www.vho.org/D/anf; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/Books/anf
[591]Online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/1/1_97.html and www.vho.org/VffG/1997/2/2_97.html (German).
[592]See the transcript of this document at www.vho.org/censor/BPjS_vho.html (German).
[593]Online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/1/GaeRad1.html; Engl.: www.vho.org/GB/ c/WW/GroundWater.html.
[594]Online: www.vho.org/VffG/1997/3/3_97.html and www.vho.org/VffG/1997/4/4_97.html (German).
[595]Online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/2/2_98.html (German).
[596]A review of the later confiscated book on the same topic, see next.
[597]Hans Jürgen Nowak, "Kurzwellen-Entlausungsanlagen in Auschwitz", Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung 2(2) (1998), pp. 87-105; online: www.vho.org/VffG/1998/2/Nowak2.html; Engl.: in E. Gauss (ed.), Dissecting the Holocaust, Theses & Dissertations Press, Capshaw, AL, 2000, pp. 331-324 (online: www.vho.org/GB/Books/dth/found.html).
[598]Authored by Jürgen Graf, Carlo Mattogno, Castle Hill Publishers, Hastings 1998; online: www.vho.org/D/Majdanek; English to follow soon.
[599]Online: www.vho.org/D/vuez (German only).
[600]Online: www.vho.org/D/Stutthof/index.html.
[601]Online: www.vho.org/D/Riese/index.html.
[602]Cf. online: www.vho.org/VffG/index.html.
[603]Online: www.vho.org/D/rga2/index.html.
[604]Online: www.vho.org/D/Treblinka/index.html.
[605]See online: www.vho.org/censor.
[606]Appeared in Staatsbriefe 2-3/1996, Verlag Castel del Monte, Postfach 14 06 28, 80456 Munich, pp. 23-30.
[607]The uninitiated reader may be unaware that in Germany there is a division of the Criminal Police called the State Security Department which prosecutes politically motivated crimes. This department, by far the largest of the criminal offices, has separate areas for right-wing extremist, left-wing extremist, and foreign-influenced political crimes, respectively. Those employed in one department tend to have a political opinion hostile to their target group. For example, those in the right-wing extremist department tend to have left-wing, anti-fascist orientations. In addition, the German Federal court system includes State Security Chambers whose only work is to punish politically motivated crimes. The prosecutors who work in these courts were politically trained to deal with such crimes.
[608]This house search concerned the commented version of my expert report distributed by Remer.
[609]This house search was due to suspicion of participation in the production and distribution of the newsletters Remer Depesche and Deutschland Report. (See http://www.nationaljournal.org)
[610]This house search concerned the revisionist anthology edited by my under the pseudonym Ernst Gauss entitled Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte. op. cit. (note 43); Engl.: Dissecting the Holocaust, op. cit. (note 22).
[611]R. Kammerer, A. Solms (ed.), op. cit. (note 43).
[612]Daily newspapers, such as Süddeutsche Zeitung, Stuttgarter Zeitung, Südwestpresse-Verbund (March 29, 1994), taz, Frankfurter Rundschau (March 30, 1994).
[613]Telephone conversation of K. Philipp, Frankfurt/Main, March 30, 1994.
[614]Telephone conversation of G. Rudolf, Jettingen, March 30, 1994.
[615]Press release, G. Rudolf on April 8, 1994.
[616]D. Ebeling's response to numerous queries to the Stuttgarter dpa bureau, April 13, 1994.
[617]In the referenced book by Max Frisch, Herr Biedermann played just the opposite role of a paper criminal, he was the victim of a criminal (and his own gullibility). But this fact was not made clear to the viewer.
[618]Cf. E. Gauss (ed.), Dissecting the Holocaust, op. cit.aaO. (note 22), pp. 31-34.
[619]There is a detailed discussion of this broadcast in: W. Schlesiger, Der Fall Rudolf, op. cit. (note 91); there Rudolf disputes that he hid behind the pseudonym Ernst Gauss. He had admitted that in the trial in the District Court of Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94.
[620]Cf. chapter 11.4.2. in this volume.
[621]Should be: Germar. Error in Original.
[622]Cf. "About true and false Perceptions" (www.vho.org/GB/Books/cq/percept.html).
[623]Cf. Die Welt, May 15, 1995: "Unterstützen Unternehmer die rechtsextremen Szene?" (Do Businesses Support the Right-wing Extremist Scene?). As a result of this broadcast, Germar Rudolf's employer was placed under such pressure from his customers, suppliers, competitors, and employees that he terminated Herr Rudolf's employment contract.
[624]Knaur, Munich, May 1995.
[625]Süddeutscher Rundfunk, in all four afternoon radio programs on Nov. 25, 1994.
[626]The video of this program distributed by the Süddeutscher Rundfunk was correspondingly labeled with the caption "Neo-Nazi".
[627]Because of the Remer's commented version, the University of Stuttgart refused to give Rudolf an appointment to take the rigorosum, the final examination for his PhD title.
[628]Confidential letter of G. Rudolf to H. Herrmann, Dec. 20, 1992, Computer Data File 2, sheet 222, in records of the District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, introduced Dec. 6, 1994.
[629]Letter to K. Philipp on March 1, 1993, Investigation File 1, sheet 351, in records of the District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, introduced on Dec. 17, 1994.
[630]Response of G. Rudolf to accusation May 1994, introduced in trial before District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, on March 17, 1995 in chambers, in records.
[631]H. Lummert thinks that one should stay with the abbreviation for BRD: "Bubisrepublik Deutschland" (Bubis Republic Germany). Approximately 30 witnesses testified that they had never heard Germar Rudolf make anti-Semitic remarks and that he had even protested against their use. There was no contrary testimony. The media likewise ignored a speech at an academic fraternity by Rudolf to students which was clearly pro-Jewish. On May 9, 1995, the court verified that the speech had taken place.
[632]SDR 3, June 23, 1995, 13:30 hours.
[633]Verdict of the District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, pp. 15, 156ff. As evidence the court used an unpublished writing of the accused. In it, Rudolf commented how the confirmation of revisionist theses might embarrass Jews. Records of the District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, Computer Data File 3, introduced on Jan. 26, 1995. Where there is racism in these speculative remarks is unclear.
[634]BRT 1 (Belgian Television), Panorama, April 27, 1995.
[635]Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote and Gäubote/Südwestpresse-Verbund, May 6, 1996.
[636]Jessica Berry and Chris Hastings, "German neo-Nazi fugitive is found hiding in Britain", The Sunday Telegraph, Oct. 17, 1999; repeated on Oct. 18, 1999 in the Independent.
[637]Address: Castle Hill Publishers, PO Box 118, Hastings TN34 3ZQ, UK; online: http://vho.org/VffG
[638]This was echoed, e.g., by the Australian Jewish News, Nov. 5, 1999.
[639]The German matching piece to this periodical, blick nach rechts, started its campaign as late as June 2000 with a contribution by Thomas Pfeiffer in the same style, of course.
[640]Online at: http://www.codoh.com/newsdesk/000107.html.
[641]This is the trick used to send revisionists to jail: Since everyone knows that the Holocaust happened, revisionists must know it also. When they still assert the opposite, they must do so wittingly and therefore they lie. Whoever lies has evil intentions and therefore belongs behind bars. Such is the logic of terror.
[642]Written after reading the article by J. Lober in Staatsbriefe 7/95 mentioned in the beginning;
taken from Staatsbriefe 12/95, Verlag Castel del Monte, Postfach 14 06 28, 80456 Munich, pp. 10-15.
[643]Staatsbriefe 7/95
[644]Investigation File 1 in the trial against Germar Rudolf, District Court of Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, sheet 15.
[645]The Remer Depesche had already appeared in Spring 1991, before Rudolf had begun his research as expert witness.
[646]Ref. 8 Js 13182/92, Investigation File 1 (District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94), sheet 17ff.
[647]Ibid., sheet 58.
[648]Ibid., sheet 63
[649]See chapter 6.3. for this.
[650]Investigation File 1 (District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94), sheet 84f.
[651]Ibid., sheet 86.
[652]In the exhibits of the trial against Rudolf (District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94), Correspondence File K. Rudolf had added thanks for Körber's Christmas present - his criminal complaint.
[653]Germar Rudolf's doctoral supervisor, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. H. G. von Schnering, as well as several other professors at the Max- Planck- Institute for Solid State Research received the pirated version on this day: decision, District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, p. 126.
[654]A later letter of the Central Council of Jews to the President of the MPG on June 22, 1993, refers to this telephone call. Facsimile published in Wilhelm Schlesiger, Der Fall Rudolf, op. cit. (note 91); from the records of the Labor Court Stuttgart in the case Rudolf v. Max- Planck- Institute for Solid State Research, ref. 14 Ca 6663/93.
[655]According to information from his secretary, Prof. Simon knew what role he was being forced to play, but for opportunistic reasons he put his career and the reputation of the Max-Planck-Institute ahead of upholding the principles of scientific research; information received from my former wife who still workes at this institute. On this affair, cf. also Prof. Simon's revealing statements and the discussion on the social taboo that must be observed by German scientists in: W. Schlesiger, Der Fall Rudolf, (note 91).
[656]This description is based on the transcript of Rudolf's testimony from memory from this time, Computer Data File 2, (District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94), 175-220.
[657]Wiesbadener Kurier on 8./9. and 13. May 1993.
[658]Labor Court of Stuttgart, ref. 14 Ca 6663/93. A detailed description of the events in the Max-Planck-Institute and elsewhere about the Rudolf report during the year 1993, with a series of reproduced documents, can be found in the brochure W. Schlesiger, The Rudolf Case, op. cit. (note 91).
[659]Ref. IX 1496/79, decision on March 18, 1981. At that time, a person who had been convicted to five years imprisonment for a drug offense which was entered in his police record, was certified as having the necessary ethical qualification, and the University was ordered to admit him to the Rigorosum. In this decision, it was held that this Hitler law is still in effect because it does not contain National Socialist thinking and should be considered as having been legally enacted.
[660]Ref. 13 K 1329/94. After the prison sentence against Rudolf was announced, Rudolf's doctoral supervisor commented that he would have to sit out his punishment before he could complete his doctoral program. Prof. von Schnering was apparently always ready to stand behind his candidate.
[661]See the letter of the University as well as Rudolf's reaction (in German only online: vho.org/Authors/UniStgt.html and vho.org/Authors/RudolfUniStgt.html).
[662]There remained the non-ordinary way that he has followed successfully.
[663]Criminal indictment by the States Attorney of Stuttgart on 19. April 1994, ref. 4 Js 34417/93.
[664]Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, decision p. 239.
[665]Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, decision p. 15.
[666]Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, Letter of the 17th Criminal Justice Chamber of the District Court of Stuttgart to the Federal High Court (BGH) on April 21, 1994. Investigation File 2, sheet 768. Answer of the Federal High Court on April 26, 1994 with enclosure: decision on March 15, 1994 re: G. A. Deckert, ref. 1 StR 179/93.
[667]County Court of Böblingen, ref. 9 Gs 521/94. This case was later dropped due to lack of evidence.
[668]See chapter 11.4.2.
[669]See chapter 11.5.
Cf. also the article "The Role of the Press in the Case of Germar Rudolf" in this collection.
[670]For example, in the South African newspaper The Citizen, June 24, 1995, p. 8.
[671]dpa news release on March 28, 1994, published in the German daily newspapers on March 29, 30, 31, 1994.
[672]Die Welt, April 5, 1995.
[673]Landesschau, Südwest 3, Dec. 27, 1994; Kreiszeitung - Böblinger Bote, March 29, 1995.
[674]Die Zeit, April 15, 1993, p. 44.
[675]Stuttgarter Zeitung, Nov. 23, 1994
[676]Die Welt, March 29, 1994.
[677]Stuttgarter Zeitung, Jan. 27, 1995
[678]A complaint against the Süddeutsche Zeitung was denied on account of errors of form, but the fee of ca. DM 5,000 (ca. $2,500) had to be paid anyway.
[679]A detailed critique of this broadcast can be found in: W. Schlesiger (note 91).
[680]Statement of witness Ursula Rudolf on March 24, 1995 in Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94.
[681]Letter of the accused to his godmother on April 30, 1994, introduced in the main trial proceeding on Feb. 23, 1995 in Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94.
[682]Cartell-Verband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen (Cartel-Union of Catholic German Student Fraternities) (CV), with approximately 35,000 members.
[683]Written decision of the Conduct Court, e. v. AV Tuisconia Königsberg zu Bonn on Aug. 20, 1995, written by constitutional attorney Herbert Stomper. Rudolf's appeal was rejected.
[684]The other three are: religio, scientia, amicitia.
[685]Testimony of union brother Dr. Markus Kiefer in the trial in the Conduct Court.
[686]So the statement of the landlord at the time, Karlheinz Bühler, to G. Rudolf in later Summer 1994.
[687]It was not necessary to give a reason, because by the German Civil Code (BGB) no reason for termination is necessary with respect to a two-family house in which the landlord himself lives.
[688]Facsimile reproduction of this document in Sleipnir 4/95, insider back cover.
[689]Sheet 1411 of the Records in Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94, with the hand-written note by Dr. Mayer that access to the records should be granted after records had been returned by the defense.
[690]Investigation File 2, Sheet 876, in trial of District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94.
[691]From the letter of the defense attorney Dr. G. Herzogenrath-Amelung to the District Court of Stuttgart on this subject on Nov. 16, 1995, in Trial District Court Stuttgart, ref. 17 KLs 83/94.
[692]See chapter 11.5.
[693]Email from Georg Hermann Rudolf from February 19, 2000.

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