1. Gore Vidal, "The Empire Lovers Strike Back,"
in Nation (22 March 1986).
2 . Rochelle G. Saidel, Never Too Late to Remember (New York: 1996), 32.
3 . Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, revised and enlarged edition (New York: 1965), 282. The situation in Germany wasn't much different. For example, Joachim Fest's justly admired biography of Hitler, published in Germany in 1973, devotes just four of 750 pages to the extermination of the Jews and a mere paragraph to Auschwitz and other death camps. (Joachim C. Fest, Hitler [New York: 19751, 679-82 )
4 . Raul Hilberg, The Politics of Memory (Chicago: 1996), 66, 105-37. As with scholarship, the quality of the few films on the Nazi holocaust was, however, quite impressive. Amazingly, Stanley Kramer's Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) explicitly refers to Supreme Court justice Oliver Wendell Holmes's 1927 decision sanctioning sterilization of the "mentally unfit" as a precursor of Nazi eugenics programs; Winston Churchill's praise for Hitler as late as 1938; the arming of Hitler by profiteering American industrialists; and the opportunist postwar acquittal of German industrialists by the American military tribunal .
5 . Nathan Glazer, American Judaism (Chicago: 1957), 114. Stephen J. Whitfield, "The Holocaust and the American Jewish Intellectual," in Judaism (Fall 1979) .
6 . For sensitive commentary on these two contrasting types of survivor, see Primo Levi, The Reawakening, with a new afterward (New York: 1986), 207 .
7 . In this text, Jewish elite designates individuals prominent in the organizational and cultural life of the mainstream Jewish community .
8 . Shlomo Shafir, Ambiguous Relations: The American Jewish Community and Germany Since 1945 (Detroit: 1999), 88, 98, 100-1, 111, 113, 114, 177, 192, 215, 231, 251 .
9 . Ibid., 98, 106, 123-37, 205, 215-16, 249. Robert Warshaw, "The 'Idealism' of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg," in Commentary (November 1953). Was it merely a coincidence that at the same time, mainstream Jewish organizations crucified Hannah Arendt for pointing up the collaboration of aggrandizing Jewish elites during the Nazi era? Recalling the perfidious role of the Jewish Council police force, Yitzhak Zuckerman, a leader of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, observed: 'There weren't any 'decent' policemen because decent men took off the uniform and became simple Jews" (A Surplus of Memory [Oxford: 19931, 24-4) .
10 . Novick, The Holocaust, 98-100. In addition to the Cold War, other factors played an ancillary role in American Jewry's postwar downplaying of the Nazi holocaust for example, fear of anti-Semitism, and the optimistic, assimilationist American ethos in the 1950s. Novick explores these matters in chapters 4-7 of The Holocaust .
11 . Apparently the only one denying this connection is Elie Wiesel, who claims that the emergence of The Holocaust in American life was primarily his doing. (Saidel, Never Too Late, 33-4 )
12 . Menahem Kaufman, An Ambiguous Partnership (Jerusalem: 1991), 218, 276-7 .
13 . Arthur Hertzberg, Jewish Polemics (New York: 1992), 33; although misleadingly apologetic, cf. isaac Alteras, "Eisenhower, American Jewry, and Israel," in American Jewish Archives (November 1985), and Michael Reiner, "The Reaction of US Jewish Organizations to the Sinai Campaign and Its Aftermath," in Forum (Winter 1980-1) .
14 . Nathan Glazer, American Judaism (Chicago: 1957), 114. Glazer continued: Israel has meant almost nothing for American Judaism.... [The idea that Israel ... could in any serious way affect Judaism in America ... is recognized as illusory" (115) .
15 . Shafir, Ambiguous Relations, 222 .
16 . See, for example, Alexander Bloom, Prodigal Sons (New York: 1986 )
17 . Lucy Dawidowicz and Milton Himmelfarb (eds), Conference on Jewish Identity Here and Now (American Jewish Committee: 1967) .
18 . After emigrating from Germany in 1933, Arendt became an activist in the French Zionist movement; during World War II through Israel's founding, she wrote extensively on Zionism. The son of a prominent American Hebraist, Chomsky was raised in a Zionist home and, shortly after Israel's independence, spent time on a kibbutz. Both the public campaigns vilifying Arendt in the early 1960s and Chomsky in the 1970s were spearheaded by the ADL. (Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt [New Haven: 19821, 105 8, 138-9, 143 4, 182 4, 223-33, 348; Robert F. Barsky, Noam Chomsky [Cambridge: 19971, 9-93; David Barsamian (ed.), Chronicles of Dissent [Monroe, ME: 19921, 38 )
19 . For an early prefigurement of my argument, see Hannah Arendt, "Zionism Reconsidered" (194-4), in Ron Feldman (ed.), The Jew as Pariah (New York: 1978), 159 .
20 . Making It (New York: 1967), 336 .
21 . Breaking Ranks (New York: 1979), 335 .
22 . Robert I. Friedman, 'The Anti-Defamation League Is Spying on You," in Village Voice (11 May 1993). Abdeen Jabara, "The Anti-Defamation League: Civil Rights and Wrongs," in Covert Action (Summer 1993). Matt Isaacs, "Spy Ìvs Spite," in SF Weekly (2-8 February 2000) .
23 . Elie Wiesel, Against Silence, selected and edited by lrving Abrahamson (New York: 1984), v. i, 283 .
24 . Novick, The Holocaust, 147. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The Jewish Presence (New York: 1977), 26.
25 . "Eruption in the Middle East," in Dissent (Winter 1957) .
26 . "Israel: Thinking the Unthinkable," in New York magazine (24 December 1973) .
27 . Norman G. Finkelstein, Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict (New York: 1995), chaps 5-6 .
28 . Noam Chomsky, The Fateful Triangle (Boston: 1983), 4 .
29 ; Elie Wiesel's career illuminates the nexus between The Holocaust and the June war. Although he had already published his memoir of Auschwitz, Wiesel won public acclaim only after writing two volumes celebrating Israel's victory. (Wiesel, And the Sea, 16 )
30 . Kaufman, Ambiguous Partnership, 287, 306-7. Steven L. Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Conflict (Chicago: 1985), 17, 32 .
31 . Benny Morris, 1948 And After (Oxford: 1990), 14 15. Uri Bialer, Between East and West (Cambridge: 1990), 180 -- 1 .
32 . Novick, The Holocaust, 148 .
33 . See, for example, Amnon Kapeliouk, Israel: la fin des mythes (Paris: 1975) .
34 . Novick, The Holocaust, 152 .
35 . Commentary, "Letter from Israel" (February 1957). Throughout the Suez crisis, Commentary repeatedly sounded the warning that Israel's "very survival" was at stake .
36 . Abba Eban, Personal Witness (New York: 1992), 272 .
37 . Peter Grose, Israel in the Mind of America (New York: 198 3), 304 .
38 . A.F.K. Organski, The $36 Billion Bargain (New York: 1990), 163, 48 .
39 . Finkelstein, Image and Reality, chap. 6 .
40 . Novick, The Holocaust, 149-50. Novick cites here the noted Jewish scholar Jacob Neusner.
41 . Ibid., 153, 155 .
42 . Ibid., 69 77 .
43 . Tom Segev, The Seventh Million (New York: 1993), part VI .
44 . Concern for survivors of the Nazi holocaust was equally contrived: a liability before June 1967, they were silenced; an asset after June 1967, they were sanctified .
45 . Response (December 1988). Prominent Holocaust-mongers and Israel-supporters like ADL national director Abraham Foxman, past president of the AJC Morris Abram, and chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations Kenneth Bialkin, not to mention Henry Kissinger, all rose to Reagan's defense during the Bitburg visit, while the AJC hosted West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl's loyal foreign minister as the guest of honor at its annual meeting the same week. In like spirit, Michael Berenbaum of the Washington Holocaust Memorial Museum later attributed Reagan's Bitburg trip and statements to "the naive sense of American optimism." (Shafir, Ambiguous Relations, 302-4; Berenbaum, After Tragedy, 14 )
46 . Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, Jews and the New American Scene (Cambridge: 1995), 159 .
47 . Novick, The Holocaust, 166 .
48 . Lipset and Raab, Jews, 26 -7 .
49 . Charles Silberman, A Certain People (New York: 1985), 78, 80, 81 .
50 . Novick, The Holocaust, 170-2 .
51 . Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein, The New anti-Semitism (New York: 1974), 107 .
52 . Jean-Paul Sartre, Anti-Semite and Jew (New York: 1965), 28 .
53 . Saidel, Never Too Late, 222. Seth Mnookin, "Will NYPD Look to Los Angeles For Latest 'Sensitivity' Training?" in Forward (7 January 2000). The article reports that the ADL and Simon Wiesenthal Center are vying for the franchise on programs teaching "tolerance. "
54. Noam Chomsky, Pirates and Emperors (New York: 1986), 29-30 (Rubinstein) .
55 . For a survey of recent poll data confirming this trend, see Murray Friedman, 'Are American Jews Moving to the Right?" in Commentary (April 2000). In the 1997 New York City mayoral contest pitting Ruth Messinger, a mainstream Democrat, against Rudolph Giuliani, a law-and-order Republican, for example, fully 75% of the Jewish vote went for Giuliani. Significantly, to vote for Giuliani, Jews had to cross traditional party as well as ethnic lines (Messinger is Jewish) .
56 . It seems that the shift was also in part due to the displacement of a cosmopolitan Central European Jewish leadership by arriviste and shtetlchauvinist Jews of Eastern European descent like New York City mayor Edward Koch and New York Times executive editor A.M. Rosenthal. In this regard it bears notice that the Jewish historians dissenting from Holocaust dogmatism have typically come from Central Europe for example, Hannah Arendt, Henry Friedlander, Raul Hilberg, and Arno Mayer.
57 . See, e.g., Jack Salzman and Cornel West (eds), Struggles in the Promised Land, (New York: 1997), esp. chaps 6, 8, 9, 14, 1 5. (Kaufman at 111; Greenberg at 166) To be sure, a vocal minority of Jews dissented from this rightward drift.
58 . Nathan Perlmutter and Ruth Ann Perlmutter, The Real anti-Semitism in America (New York: 1982) .
59 . Novick, The Holocaust, 173 (Podhoretz).