The Four Million Figure of Auschwitz

Origin, Revisions and Consequences

By Carlo Mattogno

Although scientifically untenable, it passed for a long time, in public thought, as an irrevocable truth that four million prisoners perished in the concentration camp Auschwitz.[1] When Fritjof Meyer, a leading editor of Germany's biggest news magazine Der Spiegel reduced the death toll of Auschwitz to a new record low of just over 500,000 victims in May 2002,[2] The Revisionist reacted to this with the publication of three articles which dealt with the latest up-to-date state and development of victim numbers of Auschwitz.[3] However, the question as to how the figure of 4,000,000 victims - grossly exaggerated but spread dogmatically as true for decades - actually came into existence and what consequences would result from so many revisions of the past, was so far untouched. In these two papers, Carlo Mattogno investigates the two main causes of the false four million number: Soviet propaganda and the tireless propaganda activity of the Polish communist historian Franciszek Piper.


I. Thrust to the Roots of Soviet Propaganda

1. The Origin of the Propaganda Figure of Four Million

The propaganda story of the alleged four million Auschwitz victims appeared first in the Pravda of May 7, 1945, as is generally known, and it received its official blessing at the Nuremberg trial during the court session on February 19, 1946, thanks to the Soviet prosecutor Smirnow.[4] But far less known is the origin of this story.

Within the framework of the investigations in Auschwitz between February 14 and March 8, 1945, by a Soviet investigation commission, four engineers, the Polish citizen Dawidowski and the Soviet citizens Dolinski, Lavrushins and Shuer, prepared an expert report about the "gas chambers" and crematoria of Auschwitz-Birkenau. In it is a short "Appendix 1" with the title "Calculations for determining the Number of Persons liquidated by the Germans in the Camp Auschwitz".[5] On these three pages we find the genesis of the four million number. The "expert report" starts with the following premises:[6]

"Based on the investigated material it can be determined that the Germans, by carefully removing the traces of their crimes and misdeeds, destroyed all documents which would have made it possible to determine more or less accurately the number murdered by Hitler's butchers in the camp.

Thus, the Germans removed, as an example, the documentation about the arrival of railroad transports carrying people; they destroyed the documentation about the quantities of women's hair, eye glasses and dresses, as well as other evidence, which would have made it possible to determine, with the help of statistical calculations, the number of persons that perished in this camp.

Nevertheless, we think that it is possible to perform a calculation which would permit us to determine the order of magnitude of the extermination of camp inmates by the Germans."

Because they didn't have any documents, the Polish-Soviet 'experts' used a completely unreliable method of calculation - the counting of the cremated corpses in the crematoria of Auschwitz - and made additionally grotesque exaggerations.

First they divided the time of operation of these installations into three periods:

Photo 1: Soviet propaganda chiselled in stone - removed in 1990: "Site of martyrs and the death of 4 million victims killed by Nazi genocidal mass murderers 1940 - 1945"

First period: Beginning of 1941[sic! Correct: 1942] to March 1943; duration 14 months.

Second period: March 1943 to May 1944; duration 13 months.

Third period: May to October 1944; duration 6 months.

I quote:[6]

"During the first period, the crematorium and the gas chambers[[7]] 1 and 2 were in operation as well as the pyres located next to them. During the second period the crematoria II, III, IV and V [were in operation]. During the third period the crematoria II, III, IV and V as well as the gas chamber 2 and the pyres next to it [were in operation]."

All calculations about the cremations in ovens are based on the presumption that 9,000 corpses per month were cremated in Auschwitz I, while the crematoria of Birkenau had the following monthly cremation capacities: [8]

Crematorium II:

90,000

Crematorium III:

90,000

Crematorium IV:

45,000

Crematorium V:

45,000

Total:

270,000 corpses per month

This cremation capacity corresponds to 9,000 corpses daily (3,000 each for crematorium II and III, 1,500 each daily for crematorium IV and V) and is in reality eight times higher than the theoretical maximum capacity of these installations!

The 'experts' inexplicably determined a capacity for crematorium I which is exaggerated by a factor of only two. From this it follows that the alleged hourly cremation capacity of a two-muffle oven (two corpses per hour) would have been four times less than a three-muffle oven as well as an eight-muffle oven (eight corpses per hour). This is absurd, because the two-muffle ovens were not only not inferior to the ovens of Birkenau, but actually superior.

The 'experts' calculated the number of the cremated bodies during the third period based on the following factors:

270,000 = monthly number of cremations in the crematoria of Birkenau;
6 = Number of months the crematoria were in operation;
0.9 = Utilization factor of the crematoria;
Therefore: (270,000 6) 0.9 = 1,450,000 dead.

For the second period of thirteen months the 'experts' assume a utilization factor of 0.5, so that their calculation appears as follows:

(270,000 13) 0.5 = 1,755,000 corpses; this number is rounded down to 1,750,000.

Also for the first period of fourteen months, during which only the crematorium I was in operation, the 'experts' decided an utilization factor of 0.5 and came thus to:

(9,000 14) 0.5 = 63,000 dead.

Accordingly the total number of corpses cremated in the crematoria as per commission during these three periods amounted to 3,263,000.

For the "gas chamber 2", the so-called 'Bunker 2,' which was supposed to be in operation for six months during the third period, the 'experts' determined a daily killing capacity of 3,000 people, or 90,000 per month. They assumed an utilization factor of 0.5, which according to them will result in a the total number of the murdered in that location of

(90,000 6) 0.5 = 270,000.

According to the 'experts,' the "gas chamber 1," i.e., the so-called 'Bunker 1,' was in operation during the first period for fourteen months and had a killing capacity of 5,000 per day or 150,000 per month. Using a utilization factor of 0.25 the 'experts' therefore calculated (150,000 14) 0.25 = 525,000 dead.

Under these presuppositions, the number of gassed in both 'bunkers' and then on pyres cremated would have resulted in 795,000. Adding this number to the murdered and cremated in the crematoria results in a number of 4,058,000, which was rounded off by the 'experts' to 4,000,000.

2. The Arrangements between 'Experts' and 'Witnesses'

It is not necessary to unleash too many words about the evidently outrageous character of this statistical method, which is based on gigantic exaggerations of the cremation capacity as well as on totally arbitrary utilization coefficients.

It has to be emphasized that the testimonies of 'eyewitnesses' fit seamlessly into the framework of propaganda claims. This 'expert report' as well as the 'eyewitness reports' support each other, which suggests that the witnesses were without any doubt instructed by the 'experts' before they made their statements. It is a fact, in any case, that the witnesses as well as the 'experts' made intrinsically incorrect statements. I am thinking primarily about the capacity of the crematoria as postulated by both.

Photos 2 & 3: Memorial plaques at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in October 1991:
the old inscription with the Soviet propaganda figure of four million victims is removed © Carlo Mattogno

Henryk Tauber, plainly the key witness, was questioned by the Soviets on February 27 and 28, 1945. He maintained that the two-muffle ovens of crematorium I operated at a muffle temperature between 1,200 to 1,500 degrees Celsius, which is absolutely absurd.[9] He further testified that within 20 to 25 minutes four to five corpses were cremated in one muffle in the five three-muffle ovens of the crematoria II and III - technically an impossibility. Finally, he testified that in the crematoria II and III 3,000 corpses were cremated per day, which corresponds exactly to the number as stated by the Polish-Soviet 'experts'.[10]

A coincidence? Certainly not, because the statements with regards to the functioning of the cremation ovens as made by Tauber and the 'experts' are practically identical. The 'experts' started from the hypothesis that three to five corpses were cremated in the three-muffle ovens at the same time, which took 20 to 30 minutes, and in an eight-muffle oven the cremation of a corresponding number of corpses lasted 30 to 40 minutes.

Any engineer, even having only a cursory knowledge of thermo-dynamics, would laugh at such nonsense. The Polish-Soviet engineers, however, maintained with all their know-how that their statements were of scientific value! Any engineer with basic thermo-dynamic knowledge would dismiss as incompetent any witness coming up with such silliness, but the Polish-Soviet engineers were primarily the willing tools of Soviet propaganda, and at that time crude propaganda was in great fashion.

The Soviet-Polish commission, which inspected Majdanek in August 1944, 'calculated' a number of 1,380,000 victims for that camp;[11] but in May of 1945, it was necessary that Auschwitz should horrify the world, and for this a number of victims was needed that would exceed the one claimed for Majdanek - four million to be exact!

Half a year earlier, in August 1944, other Soviet 'experts', the engineers Krause, Telyaner, and Grigorev, prepared an 'expert report' about the cremation ovens of concentration camp Majdanek, which were constructed by the company H. Kori. In this report, among others a "schematic diagram for the determination of the cremation time of the corpses in different cremation ovens at different temperatures" was included. According to its authors, this diagram was based on operating temperatures measured for civilian ovens of the models Klingenstierna, Siemens, and Schneider. According to this, the cremation time at an operating temperature of 800C was two hours, which is not below but actually above the actual time required. According to the diagram, the cremation of a corpse at an operating temperature of 1000C - the temperature at those gigantic "hot air cremation ovens" - lasted 60 minutes, at 1200C 50 minutes, at 1300C 45 minutes, at 1400C 30 minutes, and at 1500C 15 minutes.[12] The temperature inside the muffle of ovens for civilians could actually reach only a maximum of 1100C, and this for a few minutes only. Engineer Richard Kessler, one of the best-known German specialists in the area of cremation, said in this regard:[13]

"Operating temperatures of 1200 to 1500C, as they are frequently mentioned in reports about the operation of crematoria, [...] are probably only erroneously estimated but not measured temperatures. At these temperatures, the bones and the fireclay soften and weld together. The most practical operating temperatures lie between 850 and 900C, according to tests in Dessau."

It is therefore clear that the Soviet 'specialists' who dealt with Auschwitz based their absurdly short cremation times of Topf ovens of 20 to 40 minutes on this diagram, according to which such cremation times could be reached at temperatures between 1200 and 1500C.[14]

From this it follows easily that Henryk Tauber's depositions, claiming that the ovens had an operating temperature between 1200 to 1500C, were nothing else than the attempt to explain the claimed, impossibly short cremation times. The only logical conclusion is that these temperatures - as well as the alleged cremation times - were directly or indirectly given to Tauber by the 'experts' themselves!

Later, on May 24, 1945, Tauber (who understood very little of these questions), when questioned by the Polish judge Jan Sehn, testified that the operating temperature of the ovens was between 1000 to 1200 degrees Celsius,[15] but maintained his untenable assertions about the cremation capacity and expressively mentioned the Soviet figure of four million victims![16] Tauber did not even understand that he contradicted himself with this, because according to the diagram mentioned, the cremation of a corpse at these temperatures lasts an average of 75 minutes!

3. The Reason and Meaning of Franciszek Piper's Revision

It is generally known that the propaganda figure of four million Auschwitz victims, as propagated by the Soviets, was chiselled into the memorial plaques, which were erected not far from crematoria II and III of Birkenau as an 'eternal' warning for posterity. Until 1990, the plaques announced that four million people were murdered there by the "Nazis." In that year - the Soviet system had just collapsed - the Auschwitz museum undertook a revision of the number of victims: Franciszek Piper, head of the historical department of the museum, established a new propaganda figure of 1.5 million.[17] Following this, the inscriptions on the memorial plaques were removed.[18] Several years later, new plaques with the following text were installed:[19]

"May this place be a cry of despair and a warning to mankind. Here the Nazis murdered about one and a half million men, women and children. Most of them were Jews from different countries of Europe. Auschwitz-Birkenau 1940-1945."

In 1991, F. Piper wrote a long article about the number of victims of the camp, in which he announced the publication of another detailed study; in this article, he no longer spoke of 1,500,000, but only of 1,100,000 dead.[20] In the following year, this study was indeed published in the form of a small book,[21] and again two years later, in 1993, Piper published the 'definite' version of his study under the title The Number of Victims in Auschwitz.[22]

On what fragile foundation this new figure of 1.1 million is based and to what new revisions it was subjected during the last decade, is well known. But how was it possible that the Soviet propaganda figure of four million could stay valid in Auschwitz itself up to the year 1990? F. Piper wrote about this as follows:[23]

"The number of four million victims was spread in the literature by Jan Sehn, who in 1945 and 1946 was head of the Polish commission for the investigation of crimes in Auschwitz. This number was mentioned in many publications in Poland (Auschwitz State Museum, Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland), in Czecho-Slovakia and in the GDR [former communist East Germany]. However, this number of three to four million did not find greater resonance in publications of the West, regardless of the known testimony of Höß in Nuremberg. One of the first researchers who questioned this high, estimated number of victims in Auschwitz was the British historian Gerald Reitlinger. In his elaborate study on the destruction of the Jews during World War II, he wrote that in Auschwitz 'considerably less than a million people' died; of these about 550,000 to 600,000 were Jews who were murdered immediately after their arrival at the camp, and an unknown number of about 300,000 registered prisoners, who were no longer there on the day of liberation; the majority of them were Jews."

In reality, the propaganda figure of four million had been dictated by the Soviets and was maintained by the communist world for pure self-interest. The West, however, generally accepted the lapidary judgment of G. Reitlinger:[24]

"The world became suspicious about such 'estimates,' and the round figure of 4 million cannot withstand a serious examination."

The Polish judge Jan Sehn was actually more Soviet than the Soviets themselves: In the known summary of conclusions of his investigation of the year 1946, which became the foundation of the indictment against Rudolf Höß the following year, he wrote of even five million victims ("pięciu milionw")![25]

J. Sehn knew very well that the Soviet four million figure was an obvious lie. During his investigations prior to the Höß trial, he thoroughly reviewed the so-called transport lists. These were simplified transcripts of the original documents prepared secretly by inmates who were employed by the political department of the camp. In one protocol dated "Cracow, December 16, 1945", Sehn transcribed and analyzed these lists; they included:

  1. 2,377 transports with male prisoners arrived between May 20, 1940, and September 18, 1944. The arrivals were    assigned the registration numbers 1-199,531.
  2. 1,046 transports with female prisoners arrived between February 26, 1942, and March 26, 1944. These prisoners received the numbers 1-75,697.[26]

  3. 78 male transports ordered by the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) arrived between May 12 and August 1944 (registration numbers A-1/A-20,000).

  4. 60 transports with male Jews arrived between July 31 and September 21, 1944, ordered by the RSHA (registration numbers B-1/B-10,481).

  5. 90 transports with female Jews arrived between May 15 and September 20, 1944, ordered by the RSHA (registration numbers A-1/A-25,378).

  6. 171 transports with prisoners for re-education arrived between October 21, 1941, and September 20, 1944 (registration numbers E/1/E-9,339).[27]

Although these lists are not complete, they allow us to determine roughly the order of magnitude of prisoners that arrived in Auschwitz. In fact, they also serve as the basis for the Auschwitz Chronicle by Danuta Czech published in the German language between 1959 and 1964.[28]

As is generally known, the French-Jewish historian Georges Wellers wrote an article in 1983 about the number of victims of Auschwitz, which is also based on the study by D. Czech.[29] Wellers came to the conclusion that 1,613,455 people were deported to Auschwitz, of which 1,334,700 were killed.[30] Although his calculations are full of mistakes (which I pointed out in a separate study[31]), his writing dealt a deathblow to the four million fairy tale. Why did the Auschwitz-Museum defend the four million figure until 1990, although the study, which formed the basis for their revision, existed since 1964? F. Piper gave the following explanation:[32]

"The state-run Auschwitz museum in Oświęcim [Polish name of Auschwitz] started relatively late in the seventies to research the problem of the number of victims. At that time, the research did not give clear results and neither confirmed nor questioned the numbers of the Soviet and Polish investigating authorities."

As already noted, this is completely wrong, because the primary instrument of the propagandistic four million figure - D. Czech's Kalendarium - was created by the Auschwitz-Museum itself, and this refutes that figure categorically, as G. Wellers proved later, regardless of his own mistakes. And although the Kalendarium, as already mentioned, existed since 1964, F. Piper wrote the following in 1978 in a French book, which was one of the first books published by the Auschwitz museum addressing the general history of the camp (chapter "extermination"):[33]

"In the barely five years of the existence of the camp, about 4,000,000 people perished as the consequence of diseases and executions as well as from mass murders in the gas chambers."

F. Piper states that he started working on the number of victims of Auschwitz in 1980 and came to preliminary conclusions in 1986,[34] but can one seriously believe that a researcher, who has been employed by the historical department of the Auschwitz museum since 1965[35] and is its manager today, took the Soviet four-million legend at face value? Should this really be the case, it would be proof of a tragic blindness, unworthy of a history researcher. But if it is not so, as I assume, then it is proof of indecent political and ideological opportunism, also not befitting of a history researcher.

It should also be mentioned that the so-called memoirs of the first Auschwitz commandant Rudolf Höß were first published in Poland, and that Höß speaks therein of two and a half million victims; he claims that Eichmann gave him this figure. Höß lists the "largest actions", from which a total of 1,130,000 deportees derives;[36] this would have been one more reason for the Auschwitz museum as well as F. Piper to check the four million figure.

In 1990, after the collapse of the communist regime in Poland, F. Piper made use of the favorable hour to ban the thoroughly discredited old figure into history's scrap heap: he pretends now to be a free and critical spirit who undertook a major revision and therefore deserves the attention of the historians!

4. The Consequences of Giving Up the Propaganda Figure of Four Million

Whoever thinks that the propaganda figure of four million can be dropped without punishment deceives himself completely. This figure is closely connected with the thesis of mass extermination in Auschwitz and cannot be thrown overboard without bringing the whole artificial building into sway. Regardless of the futile efforts of Jean-Claude Pressac to prove this thesis of mass extermination by documents, it is up to this day based exclusively on statements of alleged eye witnesses, and Pressac himself had to make use of those when he tried to describe the first alleged homicidal gassing in crematorium II of Birkenau.[37]

As already said, the witness testimonies and the four million figure were intimately woven together right from the start, in a way that the refutation of the witness testimonies would have been equivalent to a refutation of this figure and vice versa; at the same time, the entire thesis of mass extermination in Auschwitz would become untenable.

Today, as the four million figure is finally off the table, the official history has in fact taken this irreversible path to refute the orthodox Auschwitz version. The investigation of the actual capacity of the cremation ovens of Auschwitz causes the inevitable breakdown of the thesis of mass extermination of human beings in Auschwitz, because the most important witnesses, whose testimonies are necessary to support this thesis, have in the meantime been exposed as vulgar deceivers. Without fear of refutation, it can be said today that not a single one of the key witnesses - the members of the so-called "Sonderkommando" - ever told the truth about the cremation ovens; they all lied shamelessly without exception. They lied in order to reinforce the thesis of mass extermination.

But if they lied in this key point, then what credibility can their testimonies have regarding the 'gassings' of humans?

An honest dispute of this question has to result necessarily in a radical reduction of the number of people allegedly 'gassed,' and the article published by Fritjof Meyer in the spring of 2002,[38] further reducing the number of victims in Auschwitz, is a writing on the wall for the official historiography.

This is of course only valid for those researchers who posses a minimum of honesty and critical spirit, and certainly not for the Auschwitz-museum: although its historians have abandoned the four million figure, they still quote the thermo-dynamically ridiculous testimonies of 'eye witnesses' as serious sources and could not care less about the obvious contradictions resulting from this.

In this sense, F. Piper was not ashamed to write the following as late as 1994:[39]

"A letter of the Central Construction Office to Group C of June 24, 1943, states that the capacity of crematorium I was 340 bodies, 1,440 each for crematoria II and III as well as 768 each for crematoria IV and V.[[40]] Thus, the five crematoria could cremate 4,765 bodies daily. This estimate agrees with the descriptions of the capacity of a five muffle crematorium for POW's, according to which two bodies could be cremated within 30 minutes.[[41]] However, crematorium I was shut down in the following month, which reduced the capacity to 4,515.

In their attempt to increase the cremation capacity of the ovens, the camp administration recommended to cut down the cremation time to 20 minutes and to triple the number of corpses, depending on the size of the bodies. As a result, the capacity of the crematoria could almost be doubled and went up to 8,000 corpses within 24 hours, as an inmate of the Sonderkommando, Feinsilber, testifies."

Thus this 'critical spirit' of the Auschwitz museum, who reduced the number of victims of the camp to almost a quarter, opportunistically invented a cremation capacity, which was eight times above the actual capacity! F. Piper of course knows exactly that the credibility of his 'eyewitnesses' goes down the drain if he would state the true capacity of the ovens, and this would also render all the allegations about homicidal gassings from these same witnesses untrustworthy. This is the reason why the Auschwitz museum is and continues to be an authority on superstition and prefers fairy tales of 'eyewitnesses' over science.

Abbreviations

AGK: Archiwum Głwnej Komisji Badania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi polskiemu (archive of the main commission for the research of the crimes against the Polish people, Warsaw)

GARF: Gosudarstvenni Archiv Rossiskoi Federatsiy (States archive of the Russian Federation, Moscow)

RGVA: Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennii Voyenniy Archiv (Russian state archive of war, the former TCIDK - Tsentr Khraneniya Istoriko-dokumental'nikh Kollektsii, Center for storing historical-documentary collections, Moscow)


Notes

First published as "Die Viermillionenzahl von Auschwitz: Entstehung, Revisionen und Konsequenzen" in Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung 7(1) (2003), pp. 15-27. Translated by Fabian Eschen.

[1]Werner Rademacher, "Die Wandlungen der Totenzahl von Auschwitz", VffG, 3(3) (1999), pp. 256-267 and Robert Faurisson, "How many deaths at Auschwitz?", TR, 1(1) (2003), pp. 18-23.
[2]F. Meyer, "Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz - Neue Erkenntnisse durch neue Archivfunde", Osteuropa. Zeitschrift für Gegenwartsfragen des Ostens, No. 5, May 2002, pp. 631-641. This article is available online at www.vho.org/D/Beitraege/FritjofMeyerOsteuropa.html.
[3]"Auschwitz: The Dwindling Death Toll", TR, 1(1) (2003), pp. 18-37.
[4]Der Prozeß gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Militärgerichtshof, Nürnberg 1947, Vol. VII, p. 647.
[5]GARF, 7021-108-14, pp. 18-20.
[6]Ibid, p. 18.
[7]"Gasovye kamery": The so-called 'Bunker' 1 and 2 were thus labeled in all Soviet documents. This designation was introduced by Szlama Dragan in his following Polish statements of May 10 and 11, 1945.
[8]Ibid, p. 15.
[9]The operating temperature of the muffles went up to 800C. Temperatures of 1,500C were only attainable in the fire places of the gas generators.
[10]Protocol of the questioning of Henryk Taubers from Februar 27-28, 1945. GARF, 7021-108-13, pp. 1-12.
[11]J. Graf, C. Mattogno, Concentration Camp Majdanek. A Historical and Technical Study; Theses & Dissertations Press, Chicago 2003, p. 79. The actual number of victims from Majdanek was around 42,300 (ibid., Chapter 4).
[12]Ibid, p. 286.
[13]R. Kessler, Rationelle Wärme-Wirtschaft in Krematorien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Leuchtgasfeuerung, in: V. Jahrbuch des Verbandes der Feuerbestattungs-Vereine Deutscher Sprache 1930, Königsberg 1930, p. 136.
[14]Even more crazy were the statements of the Soviet 'experts:' according to them, four to five corpses could burn as quickly as one corpse. German law, by the way, prohibited burning more than one corpse in a muffle at a time.
[15]Höß Trial, Band 11, p. 133.
[16]Ibid., p. 150.
[17]"Neue Zahlen über Auschwitz. Historiker: bis zu 1,5 Millionen Tote," Frankfurter Rundschau, July 18, 1990. This articles expressly refers to a study by F. Pipers.
[18]See photos 2 and 3. © Carlo Mattogno 1991.
[19]See photos 4 and 5 . © Carlo Mattogno 1997. The text is on 20 memorial plaques in 20 languages. In his book, Die Lüge spricht zwanzig Sprachen, V.H.O., Berchem 2000, Bruno Montoriol reproduces pictures of all 20 memorial plaques.
[20]F. Piper, "Estimating the Number of Deportees to and Victims of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp", in: Yad Vashem Studies, XXI, Jerusalem 1991, pp. 49-103.
[21]F. Piper, Auschwitz. Wie viele Juden, Polen, Zigeuner... wurden umgebracht. Universitas, Krakau 1992.
[22]Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz, National Museum Publishing House, Oświęcim, 1993.
[23]Ibid., p. 10.
[24]G. Reitlinger. Die Endlösung. Hitlers Versuch der Ausrottung der Juden Europas 1939 - 1945. Colloquium Publishers, Berlin 1992, p. 522.
[25]J. Sehn, Obz koncentracyjny i zagłady Oświęcim, in: Biuletyn Głwnej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Niemieckich w Polsce. Posen 1946, p. 128.
[26]These lists were put in order by K. Smoleń on December 16, 1947, at the American "Counsel for War Crimes" and presented at the Nuremberg follow-up process as Document NOKW-2824.
[27]AGK, NTN, 95, pp. 12f. The protocol spans p. 12 to p. 123.
[28]D. Czech, Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau, in: Hefte von Auschwitz, 2, 1959, pp. 89-118 (1940-1941); 3, 1960, pp. 47-110 (1942); 4, 1961, pp. 63-111 (January-June 1943); 6, 1962, pp. 43-87 (July-December 1943); 7, 1964, pp. 71-103 (January-June 1944); 8, 1964, pp. 47-109 (July 1944-January 1945. Wydawnictwo Państwowego Muzeum w Oświęcimiu.
[29]The second, revised edition of the Kalendarium appeared in 1989 by Rowohlt, Reinbek.
[30]G. Wellers, "Essai de détermination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz," in: Le Monde Juif, n. 112, Oct.-Dec. 1983, p. 153.
[31]Wellers e i "gasati" di Auschwitz. Edizioni La Sfinge, Parma 1987.
[32]F. Piper, op. cit. (note [22]), p. 13.
[33]F. Piper, "Extermination", in: J. Buszko, Auschwitz. Camp hitlérien d'extermination, Editions Interpress, Warsaw 1978, p. 134.
[34]F. Piper, op. cit. (note [22]), p. 13.
[35]Y. Gutman, M. Berenbaum (ed.), Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis 1994, p. XIII
[36]Głwna Komosja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Wspomnienia Rudolfa Hoessa komendanta obozu oświęcimskiego. Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, Warsaw 1956, p. 193.
[37]Jean-Claude Pressac, Die Krematorien von Auschwitz. Die Technik des Massenmordes. Piper Verlag, Munich-Zürich 1994, p. 95; Pressac stützt sich hier auf die Zeugenaussage H. Taubers.
[38]"Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz. Neue Erkenntnisse durch neue Archivfunde", in: Osteuropa, No. 5, May 2002, pp. 631-641. See also my article "Auschwitz. Fritjof Meyer's New Revisions", TR 1(1) (2003), pp. 30-37.
[39]F. Piper, "Gas Chambers and Crematoria", in: Y. Gutman and M. Berenbaum (ed.), op. cit. (note [35]), pp. 165f.
[40]See also my article "'Schlüsseldokument' - eine alternative Interpretation," VffG, 4(1) (2000), pp. 50-56.
[41]F. Piper refers to Erläuterungsbericht zur Vorentwurf für den Neubau des Kriegsgefangenenlagers der Waffen-SS, Auschwitz O/S (RGVA, 502-1-233, p. 20). This document was written at a time when the Topf tripple-muffle ovens did not yet exist and reflects the wishfull thinking of the Topf Company. The project planned at that time was different from the one later realized.

Source: The Revisionist 1(4) (2003), pp. 387-392.


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